Ānand, India
Ānand, India

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Maulvi F.A.,Maliba Pharmacy College | Thakkar V.T.,Anand Pharmacy College | Soni T.G.,Anand Pharmacy College | Gohel M.C.,JKK Nataraja Dental College and Hospital | Gandhi T.R.,Anand Pharmacy College
Powder Technology | Year: 2011

The present study was carried out with a view to enhance dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug aceclofenac (BCS-class II) using Avicel 200 and Sylysia 350 as polymers. Surface solid dispersion (SSD) was prepared by kneading method using different ratios of aceclofenac and polymers. Phase solubility study was conducted to evaluate the effect of polymer on aqueous solubility of aceclofenac. Solid state characterization was evaluated by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction study (XRD). In vitro dissolution study was performed in phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. Solid state study showed partial interaction between aceclofenac and polymer. In vitro dissolution rate of aceclofenac from solid dispersion (SD) was significantly higher compared to pure aceclofenac. The dissolution rate of the drug was affected by nature and amount of polymer used. The dissolution rate of aceclofenac/Avicel 200 solid dispersion (1:5) was higher than that of aceclofenac/Sylysia 350 solid dispersion (1:3). Thus, solid dispersion technique can be successfully used for the improvement of the dissolution profile of aceclofenac. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Gandhi M.N.,Anand Pharmacy College | Gandhi T.R.,Anand Pharmacy College
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate the effects of Montelukast and Curcumin against indomethacin induced gastric damage in rats in order to assess the role of leukotriene (LTs) if any, in non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastroinflammation. Methods: The effects of Montelukast (10 mg/kg) and Curcumin (100 mg/kg) were observed on gastric lesion induced by Indomethacin. The blood samples were analyzed for neutrophil adhesion and lipid peroxide levels in gastric tissue measured spectrophotometrically. The skin vascular permeability study was performed by using compound 48/80 induced vascular permeability model. Results: Montelukast and Curcumin significantly reduced Indomethacin induced gastric lesion score. Pretreatment with Montelukast and Curcumin significantly counteracted Indomethacin induced gastropathy by a combination of its effect on inhibition of neutrophil adherence, through decrease in related production of free radicals that disrupts integrity of stomach mucosa and decrease in vascular permeability as compared to Indomethacin group. The results of the present study further indicates the role of 5-LOX metabolites in NSAIDs induced gastro inflammation and suggests that Montelukast and Curcumin counteracted the Indomethacin induced gastropathy by a combination of its effect on inhibition of neutrophil adherence and through decrease in related production of free radicals that disrupts integrity of stomach mucosa. Conclusions: Experimental data clearly demonstrated the role of LTs was indomethacin induced gastric ulcers. However, inhibition of ulcerogenic events by Montelukast and Curcumin is suggestive of an important balance between COX and 5-LOX products. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.

Patel V.S.,Anand Pharmacy College
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2014

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease increasingly recognized as one of the most important medical problems affecting the elderly. Although a number of drugs, including several cholinesterase inhibitors and an NMDA receptor antagonist, have been approved for use, they have been shown to produce diverse side effects and yield relatively modest benefits. To overcome these limitations of current therapeutics for AD, extensive research and development are underway to identify drugs that are effective and free of undesirable side effects. In traditional practices of Ayurvedic, numerous plants have been used to treat cognitive disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). An ethnopharmacological approach has provided leads to identifying potential new drugs from plant sources, including those for cognitive disorders. Various other plant species have shown pharmacological activities relevant to the treatment of cognitive disorders, indicating potential for therapeutic use in disorders such as AD. This article reviews some of the plants and their active constituents that have been used in traditional systems of medicine for their reputed cognitive-enhancing or anti-ageing effects. Plants and their constituents with pharmacological activities that may be relevant for the treatment of cognitive disorders, including enhancement of cholinergic function in the central nervous system (CNS), anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, are discussed.

Gota V.S.,Tata Memorial Center | Maru G.B.,Tata Memorial Center | Soni T.G.,Anand Pharmacy College | Gandhi T.R.,Anand Pharmacy College | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Curcumin is the lipid-soluble antioxidant compound obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn, also known as turmeric. Curcumin targets multiple chemotherapeutic and inflammatory pathways and has demonstrated safety and tolerability in humans, supporting its potential as a therapeutic agent; however, the clinical literature lacks conclusive evidence supporting its use as a therapeutic agent due to its low bioavailability in humans. The purpose of this study was to quantify plasma levels of free curcumin after dosing of a solid lipid curcumin particle (SLCP) formulation versus unformulated curcumin in healthy volunteers and to determine its tolerability and dose-plasma concentration relationship in late-stage osteosarcoma patients. Doses of 2, 3, and 4 g of SLCP were evaluated in 11 patients with osteosarcoma. Plasma curcumin levels were measured using a validated highperformance liquid chromatography method. The limit of detection of the assay was 1 ng/mL of curcumin. In healthy subjects, the mean peak concentration of curcumin achieved from dosing 650 mg of SLCP was 22.43 ng/mL, whereas plasma curcumin from dosing an equal quantity of unformulated 95% curcuminoids extract was not detected. In both healthy individuals and osteosarcoma patients, high interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and nonlinear dose dependency was observed, suggesting potentially complex absorption kinetics. Overall, good tolerability was noted in both healthy and osteosarcoma groups. ©2010 American Chemical Sudety.

Nair N.K.,Anand Pharmacy College | Patel K.,Anand Pharmacy College | Gandhi T.,Anand Pharmacy College
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2010

Cataract is clouding of the eye lens that reduces the amount of incoming light and results in deteriorating vision. Blindness is thought to reach 75 million by 2020. Of these, unoperated cataract may be expected to account for at least 35 million. Thus, the burden of cataract is increasing remorselessly. Embelica offcinalis is reported to have a very good antioxidant property and thus we hypothesized that it could be a good candidate in treatment of cataract. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Embelica offcinalis on selenite induced cataract in rats. For the purpose of this study, cataract was induced in young suckling (on the 10th day of life) albino wistar rats using sodium selenite (a single dose of sodium selenite; 20μM/ kg; subcutaneously). After induction of cataract, the test drug (Embelica Offcinalis) and the reference standard (ascorbic acid) were administered orally for 18 days. The progression or disappearance of cataract was observed with the help of an ophthalmoscope (OM-18, Takagi resolution 1.6). At the end of this study the alterations in the levels of total protein, soluble protein, reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde were estimated in the lens homogenate. Results showed that treatment with Embelica offcinalis, as well as ascorbic acid, produced a signifcant decrease (p < 0.05) in malondialdehyde and a simultaneous increase in lens glutathione levels (p < 0.05). The malondialdehyde content was decreased by 48% in animals treated with Embelica offcinalis. Similarly, lens glutathione was increased by 82.5% in animals treated with Embelica offcinalis. There was also a signifcant (p < 0.05) increase in protein content (total protein = 59.36% and soluble protein = 105.78%) in animals treated with Embelica offcinalis, indicating improvement in cataractogenic condition in the selenite induced cataract model. At the end of the treatment, disappearance of cataract was observed in test and standard treated animals. In conclusion, it could be said that aqueous extract of Embelica offcinalis delayed the progression of cataract in sodium selenite induced cataractogenic rats. © 2010 by School of Pharmacy.

Patel A.S.,Anand Pharmacy College | Soni T.,Anand Pharmacy College | Thakkar V.,Anand Pharmacy College | Gandhi T.,Anand Pharmacy College
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2012

The preparation of Tramadol-HCL spray-dried microspheres can be affected by the long drug recrystallization time. Polymer type and drug-polymer ratio as well as manufacturing parameters affect the preparation. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the possibility to obtain tramadol spray-dried microspheres using the Eudragit® RS and RL; the influence of the spray-drying parameters on morphology, dimension, and physical stability of microspheres was studied. The effects of matrix composition on microparticle properties were characterized by Laser Light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction study, FT-infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy. The spray-dried microparticles were evaluated in terms of shape (SEM), size distribution (Laser light scattering method), production yield, drug content, initial drug loding and encapsulation efficiency. The results of X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis reveals the conversion of crystalline drug to amorphous. FTIR analysis confirmed the absence of any drug polymer interaction. The results indicated that the entrapment efficiency (EE), and product yield were depended on polymeric composition and polymeric ratios of the microspheres prepared. Tramadol microspheres based on Eudragit® blend can be prepared by spray-drying and the nebulization parameters do not influence significantly on particle properties.

Dholakia M.,Anand Pharmacy College | Thakkar V.,Anand Pharmacy College | Patel N.,Anand Pharmacy College | Gandhi T.,Anand Pharmacy College
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2012

A sustain release thermo reversible in situ gel of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride using mucoadhesive polymer was prepared. Mucoadhesive polymer was used to obtain an ophthalmic delivery system with improved mechanical and mucoadhesive properties that will provide prolong retention time for treatment of ocular diseases. Developed formulations were evaluated for drug-excipient compatibility study, pH, Clarity, Gelation temperature study, Mucoadhesion properties and in-vitro release studies. Drug-excipient compatibility study was performed by FTIR technique.The individual IR spectra of the pure drug and polymers as well as the combination spectra of the drug and polymer were taken, which indicate no interaction between Moxifloxacin and polymers when compared with infrared spectrum of pure drug as all functional group frequencies were present. The values of other parameters obtained were in acceptable range. In vitro release tests revealed that 98% drug was released from the in situ gel containing 0.5% and 1.00% HPMC in 12 hr. provides prolonged release.

Patel N.,Anand Pharmacy College | Patel J.,Nootan Pharmacy College | Shah S.,L J Institute Of Pharmacy
Acta Pharmaceutica | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of 3 independent variables in the compression coated tablet of mesalamine for ulcerative colitis. A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used to derive a second order polynomial equation and construct contour plots to predict responses. The independent variables selected were: percentage of polymers (pectin and compritol ATO 888) in compression coating (X1), coating mass (X2) and coating force (X3). Fifteen batches were prepared and evaluated for percent of drug released in 5 h (Y5), time required for 50 % mesalamine to dissolve (t50) with rat cecal (RC) content and without rat cecal content (t50), percent of drug released in 24 h in the presence of rat cecal content (Y24 with RC). Transformed values of independent and dependent variables were subjected to multiple regressions to establish a full-model second-order polynomial equation. F was calculated to confirm the omission of insignificant terms from the full-model equation. The computer optimization process and contour plots predicted the levels of independent variables X1, X2, and X3 (0, 0.2 and -0.15, respectively) for colon targeting and total percent of drug released up to 24 h.

Parikh M.,Anand Pharmacy College | Patel K.,M. S. University of Baroda | Soni S.,Anand Pharmacy College | Gandhi T.,Anand Pharmacy College
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis | Year: 2014

The nuclear receptor liver X receptor [LXR] is activated by endogenous oxidized derivatives of cholesterol. It constitutes a critical receptor in the regulation of various physiological functions related to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, as well as various other disorders. Both isoforms of LXR, LXRα [NR1H3] and LXRβ [NR1H2], form heterodimers with the isoforms of the retinoid X receptor [RXR], which then regulate the gene expression by binding to DNA sequences associated with target genes. LXR acts as a cholesterol sensor in response to an increased concentration of cholesterol in cells and induces the transcription of genes that protect cells from cholesterol overload. LXRs play numerous roles in controlling cholesterol homeostasis via their actions on bile acid synthesis and metabolism/excretion, reverse cholesterol transport and cholesterol absorption/excretion in the intestines. Therefore, these receptors show great potential as pharmacological targets for anti-atherosclerotic activities. Recent discoveries have also emphasized the important involvement of LXRs in the pathogenesis of diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, inflammation, adrenal steroid synthesis, skin aging and male fertility. However, LXR activation has also been shown to stimulate lipogenesis via sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, leading to liver steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. This review summarizes recent scientific discoveries and the biological actions of LXR with a special focus on the involvement of this type of receptor in important diseases and conditions.

Patel P.V.,Anand Pharmacy College | Soni T.G.,Anand Pharmacy College | Thakkar V.T.,Anand Pharmacy College | Gandhi T.R.,Anand Pharmacy College
Micro and Nanosystems | Year: 2013

The advent of nanotechnology has reignited interest in the lungs as a major route of drug delivery for both systemic and local treatments. As the end organ for the treatment of local diseases or as the route of administration for systemic therapies, the lung is a very attractive target for drug delivery. The large surface area and the minimal barriers impeding access to the lung's periphery make this organ a suitable portal for a variety of therapeutic interventions. Pulmonary drug delivery is an alternative method to subcutaneous injection, and also intravenous injection. Pulmonary drug delivery system is also used for delivery of peptides and some sensitive drugs. It provides direct access to disease in the treatment of respiratory diseases, while providing an enormous surface area and a relatively low enzymatic, controlled environment for systemic absorption of medications. The formulation most commonly used for pulmonary delivery includes nanoparticles, liposomes, niosomes and microspheres. Among these, on one hand a lots of attention has been focused to improve the bioavailability of marketed drugs intended for respiratory diseases and to develop new concepts for pulmonary administration of drugs and, on the other hand, the pulmonary route used for systemic diseases. Nanoparticle formulations have many advantages over traditional dosage forms, such as potential to achieve relatively uniform distribution of drug dose among the alveoli, improved solubility of the drug, reduced dosing frequency, improvement in patient compliance, decrease in incidence of side effects, enhanced dissolution properties and the potential for intracellular drug delivery. Polymers have also been used to improve therapeutic effect, while minimizing side effect. Specifically, pure drug nanoparticles and polymeric nanoparticles offer some encouraging results for delivering drugs through the lungs. Traditional techniques such as spray drying, supercritical fluid extraction, precipitation and solvent extraction have been employed to produce nanoparticulate formulations for pulmonary delivery. Here, we review various aspects of nanoparticulate formulation along with characterization and their applications with recent review. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

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