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Scherer G.,Analytisch Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH | Newland K.,Celerion | Papadopoulou E.,Group Research and Development | Minet E.,Group Research and Development
Biomarkers | Year: 2014

The urinary metabolites 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid and 4-aminobiphenyl have been correlated with tobacco smoke exposure. Similarly, 2-cyanoethylvaline and 4-aminobiphenyl haemoglobin adducts have been used as biomarkers of effective dose for the exposure to acrylonitrile and 4-aminobiphenyl, respectively. Each pair of biomarkers is derived from the same parent chemical; however, the correlation between the urinary and the haemoglobin biomarkers has not been investigated. Using clinical study samples, we report a weak correlation between urinary and haemoglobin biomarkers due to different accumulation and elimination rates. Time course analysis showed that a reduction in exposure was paralleled by a delayed reduction in haemoglobin adducts. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. Source

Minet E.,Group Research and Development | Errington G.,Group Research and Development | Scherer G.,Analytisch Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH | Newland K.,Celerion | And 4 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2011

Background: Biomarkers have been used extensively in clinical studies to assess toxicant exposure in smokers and non-smokers and have recently been used in the evaluation of novel tobacco products. The urinary metabolite 3-HPMA, a metabolite of the major tobacco smoke toxicity contributor acrolein, is one example of a biomarker used to measure exposure to tobacco smoke. A number of laboratories have developed liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based methods to measure urinary 3-HPMA; however, it is unclear to what extent the data obtained by these different laboratories are comparable. Findings. This report describes an inter-laboratory comparison carried out to evaluate the comparability of 3-HPMA measurement between four laboratories. A common set of spiked and authentic smoker and non-smoker urine samples were used. Each laboratory used their in-house LC-MS/MS method and a common internal standard. A comparison of the repeatability ('r'), reproducibility ('R'), and coefficient of variation for 3-HPMA demonstrated that within-laboratory variation was consistently lower than between-laboratory variation. The average inter-laboratory coefficient of variation was 7% for fortified urine samples and 16.2% for authentic urine samples. Together, this represents an inter-laboratory variation of 12.2%. Conclusion: The results from this first inter-laboratory comparison for the measurement of 3-HPMA in urine demonstrate a reasonably good consensus between laboratories. However, some consistent measurement biases were still observed between laboratories, suggesting that additional work may be required to further reduce the inter-laboratory coefficient of variation. © 2011 Minet et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Minet E.,Group Research and Development | Cheung F.,Group Research and Development | Errington G.,Group Research and Development | Sterz K.,Analytisch Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH | Scherer G.,Analytisch Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH
Biomarkers | Year: 2011

Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Pluym N.,Analytisch Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH | Krnac D.,Analytisch Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH | Gilch G.,Analytisch Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH | Scherer M.,Analytisch Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

2-(4-tert-Butylbenzyl)propionaldehyde also known as lysmeral, lilial, or lily aldehyde (CAS No. 80-54-6) is a synthetic odorant mainly used as a fragrance in a variety of consumer products like cleaning agents, fine fragrances, cosmetics, and air fresheners. Due to its broad application in various fields, lysmeral was selected for the development of a biomonitoring method for the quantitative exposure assessment within the frame of the cooperation project of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) and the German Chemical Industry Association (VCI). A method based on ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of potential biomarkers of lysmeral in human urine samples. Sample cleanup was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Quantification was achieved by standard addition using stable isotope-labeled, authentic reference standards. The method is characterized by its robustness, reliability, and excellent sensitivity as proven during method validation according to approved standard guidelines. The following five lysmeral metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers of exposure for lysmeral in human urine samples: lysmerol, lysmerylic acid, hydroxylated lysmerylic acid, tert-butylbenzoic acid (TBBA), and tert-butylhippuric acid (TBHA). The determination of lysmerol required derivatization with 3-nitrophthalic acid anhydride and showed the lowest limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) in urine (0.035 and 0.10 μg/L, respectively). LOD and LOQ for the other metabolites were in the range of 0.12–0.15 and 0.36–0.45 μg/L, respectively. Accuracy for all analytes was in the range of 90–110 %. Intra- and inter-day precision was in the range of 5–10 %, except for TBHA, for which the coefficient of variation was unacceptably high (>20 %) and therefore excluded from the method. The method was applied to urine samples of 40 adult volunteers. The four remaining lysmeral metabolites were detectable in most of the 40 urine samples in the following order according to quantity excreted: TBBA >> lysmerol ≈ lysmerylic acid > hydroxy-lysmerylic acid. In conclusion, we successfully developed a biomonitoring method for the assessment of the exposure to lysmeral in the general population. The method is characterized by its precision, robustness, and accuracy. The metabolites lysmerol, lysmerylic acid, hydroxylated lysmerylic acid, and TBBA turned out to be suitable biomarkers of exposure to lysmeral, either alone or in combination with one or more of the other metabolites. Sensitivity was found to be sufficient for assessing the background exposure to this chemical in the general population. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Ramsauer B.,Analytisch Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH | Sterz K.,Analytisch Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH | Hagedorn H.-W.,Analytisch Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH | Engl J.,Analytisch Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH | And 5 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are products of the incomplete combustion of organic materials and, therefore, occur ubiquitously in the environment and also in tobacco smoke. Since some PAH have been classified as carcinogens, it is important to have access to suitable analytical methods for biomarkers of exposure to this class of compounds. Past experience has shown that measuring a profile of PAH metabolites is more informative than metabolites of a single PAH. Assessment of environmental and smoking-related exposure levels requires analytical methods with high sensitivity and specificity. In addition, these methods should be fast enough to allow high throughput. With these pre-conditions in mind, we developed and validated a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of phenolic metabolites of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene in urine of smokers and non-smokers. Sample work-up comprised enzymatic hydrolysis of urinary conjugates and solid-phase extraction on C18 cartridges. The method showed good specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy for the intended purpose and was also sufficiently rapid with a sample throughput of about 350 per week. Application to urine samples of 100 smokers and 50 non-smokers showed significant differences between both groups for all measured PAH metabolites, and strong correlations with markers of daily smoke exposure in smoker urine. Urinary levels were in good agreement with previously reported data using different methodologies. In conclusion, the developed LC-MS/MS method is suitable for the quantification of phenolic PAH metabolites of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene in smoker and non-smoker urine. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

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