News Article | December 16, 2015
The quality of laboratory water plays a crucial role in the ability to conduct accurate and efficient experiments. The polishing step that produces Type 1, or ultrapure water, often receives a lot of attention, since this water is used in critical laboratory applications. However, the overall water purification process involves not only the final polishing step, but also a pretreatment step which typically removes 95 to 99 percent of the contaminants originally present in water (Fig. 1). Since the pretreatment step removes the bulk of the contaminants in tap water, optimum water quality in the lab can only be achieved if the pretreatment step can be relied upon to consistently produce pure water that meets specifications. In many laboratories, however, this process is neglected. An inefficient pretreatment process will compromise the efficiency and productivity of the laboratory. To illustrate this point, the quality of ultrapure water from identical polishing systems fed with two different sources of pure water was compared by HPLC (Fig. 2). Pretreatment technologies Tap water contains a wide array of contaminants in high concentrations, including particulates, ions, organics, and bacteria. It is necessary to use a combination of technologies to remove all contaminants to the desired levels. Distillation — Distillation may be useful as a first purification step as it removes a broad range of contaminants; however, it consumes large amounts of tap water (for cooling) and electrical energy (for heating). Also, some contaminants are carried into the condensate, and careful maintenance is required to ensure purity. The use of distillation for water purification in the laboratory is on the decline. Reverse osmosis (RO) — Reverse osmosis is capable of removing the bulk of a wide range of contaminants, and is therefore useful as a first step in the purification process. The efficiency of RO varies among contaminant types. Ion exchange resins — Ion exchange resins remove dissolved inorganics (ions) and charged organics effectively, but not neutral organics, bacteria, and particles. Once all ion binding sites on the resins are occupied, ions are no longer retained (except when operating in an electrodeionization process). In service deionization (SDI) systems, the resins can be regenerated using strong acids and bases (tanks containing ion exchange resin are swapped for tanks with freshly regenerated resin that has been processed off-site). The chemically regenerated DI beds can introduce organics and particles into otherwise pure water. Electrodeionization (EDI) — This technology is a combination of ion exchange resins, selective semi-permeable anionic and cationic membranes, and direct electrical current. The EDI process effectively deionizes water, while the ion exchange resins are continuously regenerated by the electric current in the unit. Activated carbon — There are two forms of activated carbon used in water purification: natural and synthetic. Natural activated carbon is fine powder made of irregularly shaped grains. It contains a high concentration of ionic contaminants and is used only as a preliminary step to remove excess chlorine from tap water and to reduce organic contamination. Synthetic activated carbon is made by the controlled pyrolysis of polystyrene spherical beads, and is a much cleaner material. It is used for the removal of trace organics of low molecular weight, typically in the polishing step for the production of ultrapure water. Germicidal UV — Ultraviolet radiation is widely used as a germicidal treatment for water. UV lamps emitting light at 254 nm inactivate microorganisms and prevent microbial growth and contamination. Absorption of UV light leads to DNA modification in the bacterial cells, inhibiting their metabolism, thereby preventing their multiplication. No one single technology can efficiently remove all the contaminants in water and therefore a combination of technologies must be used in water purification systems. Table 1 compares the ion removal efficiency of single technologies (RO, distillation, SDI), and a combination of technologies (RO-EDI). Table 2 compares the reduction in total oxidizable carbon (TOC) levels using single (2a) and combination technologies (2b). A study compared the efficiency of mixedbed deionization (DI) cartridges and RO-EDI in reducing TOC levels. When 2000 L of tap water were purified, DI water exhibited unstable TOC values, while the water purified through the RO-EDI technologies had TOC values that were mostly Table 1. Ion removal efficiency of RO, RO-EDI, distillation (still), and SDI (values in ppb). Table 2a. Reduction of TOC levels by RO and distillation (still) (values in ppb). Table 2b. Reduction of TOC levels by RO-EDI, distillation (still), and SDI (values in ppb). Maximizing the quality of ultrapure water In the laboratory, pure water (Type 2 or Type 3) is pretreated and polished to produce ultrapure water for sensitive applications such as LC-MS or ICP-MS. Therefore, a reliable pretreatment process for pure water is ultimately critical for ultrapure water quality. In one study, DI and RO-EDI pretreatment systems (A and B, respectively) were connected to the same tap water source and the purified water from each was polished using identical Milli-Q units. System A product water had high and fluctuating TOC levels, whereas System B showed TOC concentrations consistently around 10 ppb (Fig. 4). In another study, the SDI-Distillation and RO-EDI pretreatment systems (A and B, respectively) were connected to the same tap water source and the purified water from each was polished using identical Milli-Q units. System A product water had fluctuating TOC levels, whereas the ultrapure water polished from the RO-EDI system consistently showed TOC levels below 10 ppb (Fig. 5). In the polishing step, three technologies are typically combined: ion exchange resins (single use), synthetic activated carbon, and UV photooxidation. These three technologies are necessary to obtain and maintain TOC levels less than or equal to 5 ppb in ultrapure water. Conclusions Optimal water quality in the laboratory requires the best source of pure water. Even though there are a number of purification technologies available, no single technology will remove all the contaminants to levels low enough for laboratory use. Thus, a combination of technologies is recommended. The combination of RO and EDI is the best choice for producing Type 2 water. The ion and TOC levels of RO-EDI water are consistently low, meeting the needs of many general laboratory applications, and for use in clinical analyzers. Also, the consistent quality of RO-EDI water makes it most suitable for producing ultrapure water with a polishing system such as a Milli-Q system. The result is ultrapure water with consistently low levels of ions and TOC. Other sources of pure water, such as distillation, SDI, and even the combination of SDI and distillation have been shown to produce polished water with fluctuating contaminant levels. Such fluctuation compromises the quality of data obtained from modern analytical instruments where trace and ultra trace analyses are possible. Finally, in addition to choosing the best technologies based on a sound understanding of water quality, it is important that laboratory personnel be trained in the proper use and maintenance of the systems, and that appropriate water quality parameters be monitored on a regular basis. Using a system equipped with resistivity and TOC monitoring capabilities allows users to check the quality of water being delivered. Dr. Estelle Riche has been Senior Scientist in the Application group of the Lab Water business field of Millipore SAS for 9 years. Cecilia Devaux joined Millipore SAS over 13 years ago, and is currently Head of Laboratory and Analytical Group Manager in the R&D of the Lab Water business field. Dr. Stephane Mabic has been Application Manager for the Lab Water business field at Millipore SAS for more than 10 years, and is also Worldwide Training Manager. www.emdmillipore.com This article appeared in the issue of Controlled Environments.
News Article | October 28, 2016
WINNIPEG, MB--(Marketwired - October 27, 2016) - 3D Signatures Inc. (TSX VENTURE: DXD) (the "Company" or "3DS") is pleased to introduce the following internationally renowned senior biotech executives as members of the Company's Business Advisory Board. Mr. Goodman is the founder and CEO of Knight Therapeutics Inc. (TSX: GUD) ("Knight" or "Knight Therapeutics"), a specialty pharmaceutical company headquartered in Quebec, Canada. Knight was established by Mr. Goodman in 2014, and has a current market cap of approximately $1.2 billion. Prior to Knight, Mr. Goodman was a co-founder, President and CEO of Paladin Labs Inc. ("Paladin Labs") which was acquired by Endo International plc (TSX: ENL) in February 2014 for $3.2 billion. Mr. Goodman was formerly a consultant with Bain & Company and also worked in brand management for Procter & Gamble. Mr. Goodman holds a B.A. from McGill University (Great Distinction) and the London School of Economics (1st Class Honours). Additionally, he holds an LL.B. and an M.B.A. from McGill University. Bringing proven international success with Paladin Labs and Knight Therapeutics, 3DS will greatly benefit from Mr. Goodman's entrepreneurial experience and global networks, both in the pharmaceutical industry and in healthcare capital markets. Knight Therapeutics is a strategic investor in 3DS. Dr. Dreismann is a seasoned executive with more than 24 years of experience in the healthcare industry, and is regarded as a pioneer in the early adoption of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, one of the most ubiquitous technologies in molecular biology and genetics research today. He had a successful career at the Roche Group from 1985 to 2006 where he held several senior positions, including President and CEO, Roche Molecular Systems, Head of Global Business Development, Roche Diagnostics, and Member of Roche's Global Diagnostic Executive Committee. At the time of his departure, Dr. Dreismann had grown Roche Molecular Systems to approximately $1.2 billion USD in annual revenue. He currently serves on the boards of several public and private health care companies. Dr. Dreismann earned a MSc degree in biology and his Ph.D in microbiology/molecular biology (summa cum laude) from Westfaelische Wilhelms University (The University of Munster) in Germany. Dr. Dreismann brings proven strategic vision and world-class diagnostics expertise to 3DS. The Company expects to benefit greatly from his substantial commercial networks and unparalleled global perspective on the medical diagnostics market. Mr. Lindsay began his career at Millipore Corporation, Merck KGaA, and quickly advanced to become the youngest Vice President in the history of the company. He was promoted to Executive Vice President of several divisions, including the Analytical Group and Milligen Biosearch Divisions. In 2000, he founded SciPartners, with the objective of building a platform for development of early stage European and North American firms. His focus is the life sciences market, and over the past 14 years he has successfully built up sales and marketing that led to rapid growth and increased revenues for many companies, and the acquisition of ProXeon by ThermoFisher as well as the acquisition of Halo Genomics by Agilent. Mr. Lindsay's history of repeated commercial success, working with major healthcare companies, as well as small and emerging life sciences companies, will greatly aid 3DS as it endeavors to become a leading diagnostic and prognostic company for cancer and Alzheimer's disease. "In a very short time, we have built an exceptional Business Advisory Board," said John Swift, Chairman, 3DS. "This speaks to the strength of our technology and to the magnitude of our business opportunity. As the Company advances its first-in-class minimally invasive tests for major diseases such as prostate cancer and Alzheimer's disease, independent guidance from the Business Advisory Board will be of tremendous assistance in making the right decisions at the right time." To celebrate the recent September 13, 2016 listing on TSX Venture Exchange (TSXV), members of 3DS' senior management and directors will open trading at Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) on Wednesday, November 2 at 9:30 a.m. EDT. 3DS (TSX VENTURE: DXD) is a personalized medicine company with a proprietary software platform based on the three-dimensional analysis chromosomal signatures. The technology is well developed and supported by 16 clinical studies on over 1,500 patients on 13 different cancers and Alzheimer's disease. Depending on the desired application, the technology can measure the stage of disease, rate of progression of disease, drug efficacy, and drug toxicity. The technology is designed to predict the course of disease and to personalize treatment for the individual patient. For more information, visit the Company's new website at http://www.3dsignatures.com. This news release includes forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that could cause the actual results of the Company to be materially different from the historical results or from any future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. All statements within, other than statements of historical fact, are to be considered forward looking. In particular, the Company's statements that it expects to benefit greatly from its association with the individuals named in this news release is forward-looking information. Although 3DS believes the expectations expressed in such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, such statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results or developments may differ materially from those in forward-looking statements. Risk factors that could cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from the results expressed or implied by forward-looking information include, among other things: market demand; technological changes that could impact the Company's existing products or the Company's ability to develop and commercialize future products; competition; existing governmental legislation and regulations and changes in, or the failure to comply with, governmental legislation and regulations; the ability to manage operating expenses, which may adversely affect the Company's financial condition; the Company's ability to successfully maintain and enforce its intellectual property rights and defend third-party claims of infringement of their intellectual property rights; adverse results or unexpected delays in clinical trials; changes in laws, general economic and business conditions; and changes in the regulatory regime. There can be no assurances that such statements will prove accurate and, therefore, readers are advised to rely on their own evaluation of such uncertainties. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Service Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.
Suzuki Y.,Tokyo Metroplitan University |
Suzuki Y.,Public Works Research Institute |
Akamatsu F.,Tokyo Metroplitan University |
Akamatsu F.,Public Works Research Institute |
And 3 more authors.
Chemistry Letters | Year: 2010
We determined stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of plastics to discriminate between plant- and petroleum-derived plastics. The δ13C values of plastics derived from C4 plants are significantly higher than those of petroleum-derived plastics. These results suggest that the stable isotope analysis would be useful in discrimination of plant-derived plastics from petroleum-derived plastics. © 2010 The Chemical Society of Japan.
Suzuki Y.,Analytical Group |
Suzuki Y.,Japan National Food Research Institute |
Kobe R.,Analytical Group |
Nakashita R.,Analytical Group |
Nakashita R.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
Chemistry Letters | Year: 2012
We determined stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotopic compositions (δ 13C, δ 15N, and δ 18O) of fibers to discriminate between plant, animal, and synthetic fibers. The δ 13C and 15N values of synthetic fibers are significantly lower than animal fibers. Cashmere and alpaca have relatively lower δ 18O values than other animal fibers. Moreover, there are significant differences between acrylic and cashmere (e.g., in δ 15N values). These results suggest that the stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope analysis would be useful in discrimination of natural and synthetic fibers. © 2012 The Chemical Society of Japan.
Nam K.H.,Analytical Group |
Isensee R.,Analytical Group |
Infantino G.,Analytical Group |
Putyera K.,Analytical Group |
Wang X.,Analytical Group
Spectroscopy (Santa Monica) | Year: 2011
The microwave-induced combustion-mass spectrometry (MIC-MS) procedure has emerged an advanced approach to perform trace elemental analyses of pharmaceutical products. The combined MIC-MS approach has been demonstrated to be a reliable and broadly applicable testing method for trace- and ultratrace-level analyses of USP Class 1 and Class 2 defined elements in pharmaceutical products. The overall elemental accuracy and specificity of the MIC-MS approach have been evaluated in two steps, such as pre-MIC digestion spike and post-digestion spike. The post-digestion spike step has been carried out by spiking the digestion solutions at concentrations of 10 and 100 Î1/4g/L. These levels have been selected to represent the concentration in the solid tablets at 1 and 10 Î1/4g/g. The absorbing solution has also been spiked at levels equivalent to 1 and 10 Î1/4g/g for each element in the solid samples to evaluate the spike recovery of the MIC procedure.