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Liu P.M.,Global Bioassays and Technology | Zou L.,Global Bioassays and Technology | Sadhu C.,Analytical Biotechnology | Shen W.D.,NGM Biopharmaceuticals | Nock S.,Global Biologics
Bioanalysis | Year: 2015

An appropriate assessment strategy with validated anti-drug antibody (ADA) assays is critical for comparative evaluation of immunogenicity between a proposed biosimilar and its reference product. The strategy should aim to identify potential differences in immune responses between these products. While an ADA assay employing the proposed biosimilar product as the detecting reagent has been generally recommended for such evaluation, a product-specific assay using the product of interest may be of use as it offers a capability of detecting antibodies against specific epitopes from the respective product. Regardless of assay strategy, the performance of the assay must be fully assessed and method needs to be validated to meet the comparative purpose of immunogenicity assessment. © 2015 Future Science Ltd.


Wei Z.,Process Purification science | Bilbulian S.,Novavax | Li J.,Process Purification science | Pandey R.,Novavax | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2015

A new analytical method has been developed for the quantitative determination of ethylene glycol-containing nonionic surfactants, such as polyethylene glycol 8000, polysorbate 80, and Pluronic F-68. These surfactants are commonly used in pharmaceutical protein preparations, thus, testing in the presence of protein is required. This method is based on the capillary gas chromatographic analysis of ethylene glycol diacetate formed by hydrolysis and acetylation of surfactants that contain ethylene glycol. Protein samples containing free surfactants were hydrolyzed and acetylated with acetic anhydride in the presence of p-toluene sulfonic acid. Acetylated ethylene glycol was extracted with dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The amount of nonionic surfactant in the sample was determined by comparing the released ethylene glycol diacetate signal to that measured from calibration standards. The limits of quantitation of the method were 5.0 μg/mL for polyethylene glycol 8000 and Pluronic F-68, and 50 μg/mL for polysorbate 80. This method can be applied to determine the polyethylene glycol content in PEGylated proteins or the final concentration of polysorbate 80 in a protein drug in a quality control environment. © 2015 MedImmune.


Barton C.,Analytical Biotechnology | Spencer D.,Analytical Biotechnology | Levitskaya S.,Analytical Biotechnology | Feng J.,Analytical Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
ACS Symposium Series | Year: 2014

Detailed monoclonal antibody (mAb) characterization tools have enabled the discovery of structural variations, including many that compromise functionality or have other undesired properties. Size, charge, glycosylation, and disulfide bonding variants; oxidized amino acid residues; and polypeptide chain truncations, extensions, and cleavage points have been identified. Product quality attributes, including detection techniques, published knowledge about the process origins, and quality impacts of these variants are summarized. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Liu H.,Analytical Biotechnology | Lei Q.P.,Analytical Biotechnology | Washabaugh M.,Analytical Biotechnology
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

The complication of IgG2 disulfide connections demands advances in techniques for disulfide bond determination. We have developed a new LC/MS/MS method for improved disulfide analysis. With postcolumn introduction of dithiothreitol (DTT) and ammonium hydroxide, each disulfide-containing peptide eluted out of LC in an acidic mobile phase can be rapidly reduced prior to MS analysis. The reduction can be driven to near completion. The reagents are MS-friendly, and the reaction occurs at no cost of separation (little is added to the postcolumn dead volume of the LC system). Comparing LC/MS data with and without online reduction, a direct correlation can be established between a disulfide peptide and its composing peptides using retention time. With disulfide online removal, high-quality MS/MS fragmentation data can be acquired and allows for definitive determination of the disulfide peptide. This technique is especially valuable in determining the disulfide bond linkage of complicated molecules such as the hinge-containing disulfide peptides produced from IgG2 disulfide isoforms. Due to over/under enzymatic cleavages, multiple hinge-containing disulfide peptides are produced from each isoform. Twenty-two hinge-containing disulfide peptides in total have been confidently identified with this technique. Without the method, successful identification to many of these peptides would have become extremely difficult. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Bee J.S.,Analytical Biotechnology | Tie L.,Analytical Biotechnology | Johnson D.,Analytical Biotechnology | Dimitrova M.N.,Analytical Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Biotechnology Progress | Year: 2015

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are often used to produce therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). CHO cells express many host cell proteins (HCPs) required for their growth. Interactions of HCPs with mAbs can sometimes result in co-purification of trace levels of 'hitchhiker' HCPs during the manufacturing process. Purified mAb-1 product produced in early stages of process optimization had high HCP levels. In addition, these lots formed delayed-onset particles containing mAb-1 and its heavy chain C-terminal fragments. Studies were performed to determine the cause of the observed particle formation and to optimize the purification for improved HCP clearance. Protease activity and inhibitor stability studies confirmed that an aspartyl protease was responsible for fragmentation of mAb-1 resulting in particle formation. An affinity resin was used to selectively capture aspartyl proteases from the mAb-1 product. Mass spectrometry identified the captured aspartyl protease as CHO cathepsin D. A wash step at high pH with salt and caprylate was implemented during the protein A affinity step to disrupt the HCP-mAb interactions and improve HCP clearance. The product at the end of purification using the optimized process had very low HCP levels, did not contain detectable protease activity, and did not form particles. Spiking of CHO cathepsin D back into mAb-1 product from the optimized process confirmed that it was the cause of the particle formation. This work demonstrated that process optimization focused on removal of HCPs was successful in eliminating particle formation in the final mAb-1 product. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

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