Analytical Biochemistry and Proteomics Laboratory

Ottawa, Canada

Analytical Biochemistry and Proteomics Laboratory

Ottawa, Canada

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PubMed | Air Health Effects Research, Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, University of California at Davis, Analytical Biochemistry and Proteomics Laboratory and Environment Canada
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Particle and fibre toxicology | Year: 2016

Association of particulate matter with adverse health effects has been established in epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Epidemiological studies are difficult to undertake while animal studies are impractical for high-throughput toxicity testing. The ease and rapidity of in vitro tests emphasizes their potential for use in risk assessment of chemicals and particles. We examined the association between in vitro and in vivo responses to ambient particles, to determine the potential of cell-based assays as standalone toxicity screening tools.Assays of cytotoxicity and key inflammatory mediators were applied to determine the in vitro biological potency of a panel of urban and mineral particles in J774A.1 macrophages and A549 lung epithelial cells. The particles were also screened for the presence of AhR agonists using the Ah receptor-dependent gene induction assay and for endotoxin using the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. A subset of the particles with a contrasting in vitro toxicity profile was delivered intratracheally in BALB/c mice to assess their in vivo biological potency. Results from various bioassays were combined within the in vitro and in vivo models. The combined potency measures were examined for associations.Overall, J774A.1 cells were more sensitive to particle effects than A549 cells. Whereas the combined cytotoxicity estimates were highly correlated between the two cell lines, the combined in vitro inflammatory potency estimates were not, emphasizing functional differences of the two cell types. Secretion of inflammatory markers by J774A.1 cells was correlated with AhR ligand binding profile and endotoxin levels of particles. Particle instillation led to an acute toxicity response in BALB/c mice, with neutrophilia and release of inflammatory mediators. While the combined toxicity estimates were not correlated between in vitro and in vivo models, the combined inflammatory and integrated potency estimates (toxicity and inflammation) approached the threshold for significance (p=0.052) in a correlation within in vitro and in vivo models, with a ranking of fine particle (DWR1), minerals (TiO2, CRI) and coarse particles (SRM-, EHC-type) from low to high potency.Integration of in vitro endpoints shows promise in determining adverse outcomes of particle exposures in vivo. The devised data reduction and computational approach will prove useful in the development of models for assessment of hazard potential of particles; however, distinct models may be needed for particles of different type, such as urban particles vs. mineral particles, nanomaterials.


Liu Y.,Environment Canada | Liu Y.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Liggio J.,Environment Canada | Li S.-M.,Environment Canada | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has received significant attention due to their usage in a wide range of commercial applications. While numerous studies exist on their impacts in water and soil ecosystems, there is a lack of information on the exposure to CNTs from the atmosphere. The transformation of CNTs in the atmosphere, resulting in their functionalization, may significantly alter their toxicity. In the current study, the chemical modification of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) via ozone and OH radical oxidation is investigated through studies that simulate a range of expected tropospheric particulate matter (PM) lifetimes, in order to link their chemical evolution to toxicological changes. The results indicate that the oxidation favors carboxylic acid functionalization, but significantly less than other studies performed under nonatmospheric conditions. Despite evidence of functionalization, neither O3 nor OH radical oxidation resulted in a change in redox activity (potentially giving rise to oxidative stress) or in cytotoxic end points. Conversely, both the redox activity and cytotoxicity of SWCNTs significantly decreased when exposed to ambient urban air, likely due to the adsorption of organic carbon vapors. These results suggest that the effect of gas-particle partitioning of organics in the atmosphere on the toxicity of SWCNTs should be investigated further. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Kumarathasan P.,Analytical Biochemistry and Proteomics Laboratory | Vincent R.,Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute | Das D.,Analytical Biochemistry and Proteomics Laboratory | Mohottalage S.,Analytical Biochemistry and Proteomics Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2014

There are reports linking maternal nutritional status, smoking and environmental chemical exposures to adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, biological bases for association between some of these factors and birth outcomes are yet to be established. The objective of this preliminary work is to test the capability of a new high-throughput shotgun plasma proteomic screening in identifying maternal changes relevant to pregnancy outcome. A subset of third trimester plasma samples (N. =. 12) associated with normal and low-birth weight infants were fractionated, tryptic-digested and analyzed for global proteomic changes using a MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS methodology. Mass spectral data were mined for candidate biomarkers using bioinformatic and statistical tools. Maternal plasma profiles of cytokines (e.g. IL8, TNF-α), chemokines (e.g. MCP-1) and cardiovascular endpoints (e.g. ET-1, MMP-9) were analyzed by a targeted approach using multiplex protein array and HPLC-Fluorescence methods. Target and global plasma proteomic markers were used to identify protein interaction networks and maternal biological pathways relevant to low infant birth weight. Our results exhibited the potential to discriminate specific maternal physiologies relevant to risk of adverse birth outcomes. This proteomic approach can be valuable in understanding the impacts of maternal factors such as environmental contaminant exposures and nutrition on birth outcomes in future work. Biological significance: We demonstrate here the fitness of mass spectrometry-based shot-gun proteomics for surveillance of biological changes in mothers, and for adverse pathway analysis in combination with target biomarker information. This approach has potential for enabling early detection of mothers at risk for low infant birth weight and preterm birth, and thus early intervention for mitigation and prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2013 The Authors.


PubMed | Healthy Environmental, Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, St Justine Hospital and Analytical Biochemistry and Proteomics Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Journal of proteomics | Year: 2014

There are reports linking maternal nutritional status, smoking and environmental chemical exposures to adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, biological bases for association between some of these factors and birth outcomes are yet to be established. The objective of this preliminary work is to test the capability of a new high-throughput shotgun plasma proteomic screening in identifying maternal changes relevant to pregnancy outcome. A subset of third trimester plasma samples (N=12) associated with normal and low-birth weight infants were fractionated, tryptic-digested and analyzed for global proteomic changes using a MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS methodology. Mass spectral data were mined for candidate biomarkers using bioinformatic and statistical tools. Maternal plasma profiles of cytokines (e.g. IL8, TNF-), chemokines (e.g. MCP-1) and cardiovascular endpoints (e.g. ET-1, MMP-9) were analyzed by a targeted approach using multiplex protein array and HPLC-Fluorescence methods. Target and global plasma proteomic markers were used to identify protein interaction networks and maternal biological pathways relevant to low infant birth weight. Our results exhibited the potential to discriminate specific maternal physiologies relevant to risk of adverse birth outcomes. This proteomic approach can be valuable in understanding the impacts of maternal factors such as environmental contaminant exposures and nutrition on birth outcomes in future work.We demonstrate here the fitness of mass spectrometry-based shot-gun proteomics for surveillance of biological changes in mothers, and for adverse pathway analysis in combination with target biomarker information. This approach has potential for enabling early detection of mothers at risk for low infant birth weight and preterm birth, and thus early intervention for mitigation and prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Can Proteomics Fill the Gap Between Genomics and Phenotypes?


PubMed | McGill University, Analytical Biochemistry and Proteomics Laboratory and International Potato Center
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

Cooked, milled purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) accessions, PM09.812 and PM09.960, underwent digestion in a dynamic human gastrointestinal (GI) model that simulates gut digestive conditions to study the bioaccessibility and biotransformation of anthocyanins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed accession-dependent variations in anthocyanin release and degradation. After 24h, more anthocyanin species were detected in the small intestinal vessel relative to other vessels for accession PM09.960 whereas more species appeared in the ascending colonic vessel for accession PM09.812. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was increased in the small intestinal vessel for PM09.960 and in the ascending colonic vessel for accession PM09.812, corresponding to the appearance of a majority of anthocyanins for each accession. These results show that intestinal and colonic microbial digestion of PFSP leads to an accession-dependent pattern for anthocyanin bioaccessibility and degradation.

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