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Kutanan W.,Khon Kaen University | Kitpipit T.,Forensic Science Program | Phetpeng S.,Analysis Center | Thanakiatkrai P.,Forensic Science Program
Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2014

Among the people living in the five deep Southern Thai provinces, Thai-Malay Muslims (MUS) constitute the majority, while the remaining are Thai Buddhists (BUD). Cultural, linguistic and religious differences between these two populations have been previously reported. However, their biological relationship has never been investigated. In this study, we aimed to reveal the genetic structure and genetic affinity between MUS and BUD by analyzing 15 autosomal short tandem repeats. Both distance and model-based clustering methods showed significant genetic homogeneity between these two populations, suggesting a common biological ancestry. After Islamization in this region during the fourteenth century AD, gradual albeit nonstatistically significant genetic changes occurred within these two populations. Cultural barriers possibly influenced these genetic changes. MUS have closer admixture to Malaysian-Malay Muslims than BUD countrywide. Admixture proportions also support certain degree of genetic dissimilarity between the two studied populations, as shown by the unequal genetic contribution from Malaysian-Malay Muslims. Cultural transformation and recent minor genetic admixture are the likely processes that shaped the genetic structure of both MUS and BUD. © 2014 The Japan Society of Human Genetics All rights reserved. Source

Feng L.,Macau University of Science and Technology | Jia X.,Macau University of Science and Technology | Jia X.,Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine | Zhu M.-M.,Analysis Center | And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2010

Prunella vulgaris L. (PV, Labiatae) is known as a self-heal herb. The different extracts of dried spikes were studied for the best antioxidant active compounds. The 60% ethanol extract (P-60) showed strong antioxidant activity based on the results of 2,2'-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS?+), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay methods. High performanceliquid chromatography (HPLC) and LC/MS analysis showed that the main active compounds in P-60 were phenols, such as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin and quercetin. Total phenols were highly correlated with the antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.9988 in ABTS?+;0.6284 in DPPH and 0.9673 FRAP tests). P-60 could inhibit significantly the tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice. It can also been showed that increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in serum of tumor-bearing mice. These results suggested that P-60 extract had high antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo and total phenols played an important role in antioxidant activity for inhibition of tumor growth. © 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Feng L.,Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine | Feng L.,Macau University of Science and Technology | Jia X.-B.,Macau University of Science and Technology | Jiang J.,Macau University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2010

The efficacy of Prunella extracts in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer has been attributed to different components. In this study, an "active components combination model" hypothesis was proposed to explain the anti-tumor activity of Prunella. The efficacy of Prunella extracts from different regions was compared in vitro and in vivo, and the TNF-α activity in serum of tumor-bearing mice was also evaluated. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the extracts and identify 26 common peaks. Prunella samples from different regions were classified by the cluster analysis method; both P. vulgaris L. from Bozhou and P. asiatica Nakai from Nanjing, which had the highest activities, were further divided into different classes. Six peaks from the HPLC analysis were very similar, and were identified as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin, quercetin, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. The total ratio of these compounds in Prunella from Bozhou and Nanjing were 1.0:14.7:3.9:1.0:4.4:1.4 and 1.0:14.8:4.0:0.8:5.6:1.8, respectively. Total triterpenes and total phenols in Prunella were separated by macroporous resin purification for activity studies. The results showed that total triterpenes and total phenols had anti-lung cancer activity and their combination significantly enhanced the activity. In addition, the combination also significantly increased the TNF-α content compared to total triterpenes or total phenols. The results indicated that the efficacy of Prunella against lung cancer was attributable to multiple components acting at an optimal ratio. © 2010 licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Phetpeng S.,Analysis Center | Phetpeng S.,Prince of Songkla University | Kitpipit T.,Prince of Songkla University | Thanakiatkrai P.,Prince of Songkla University
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2015

Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) made from household items are encountered in terrorist attacks worldwide. Assembling an IED leaves trace DNA on its components, but deflagration degrades DNA. To maximize the amount of DNA recovered, a systematic evaluation of DNA collection methods was carried out and the most efficient methods were implemented with IED casework evidence as a validation exercise. Six swab types and six moistening agents were used to collect dried buffy coat stains on four common IED substrates. The most efficient swab/moistening agent combinations were then compared with tape-lifting using three brands of adhesive tape and also with direct DNA extraction from evidence. The most efficient collection methods for different IED substrates (post-study protocol) were then implemented for IED casework and compared with the pre-study protocol using 195 pieces of IED evidence. There was no single best swab type or moistening agent. Swab type had the largest effect on DNA recovery percentages, but moistening agents, substrates, and the interactions between factors all affected DNA recovery. The most efficient swab/moistening agent combinations performed equally well when compared with the best adhesive tape and direct extraction. The post-study protocol significantly improved STR profiles obtained from IED evidence. This paper outlines a comprehensive study of DNA collection methods for trace DNA and the validation of the most efficient collection methods with IED evidence. The findings from both parts of this study emphasize the need to continuously re-evaluate standard operating protocols with empirical studies. © 2015 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Dayton J.,Analysis Center
Military Operations Research | Year: 2011

Radio-controlled improvised explosive devices (RCIEDs) have been a major weapon of choice by Iraqi insurgents since 2003. One effective way to prevent an RCIED attack is to use electronic jamming devices to interfere with the communication between the trigger and the bomb itself. Due to power constraints and other considerations, however, a jammer usually cannot jam all triggers simultaneously. In this paper, we develop game-theoretic models to study both active jamming and reactive jamming. For active jamming, we compute the optimal mixed strategy by linear programming; for reactive jamming, we use an iterative method. Finally, we numerically demonstrate our models and their applications. Source

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