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Tu Q.-Q.,International Medical University | Zheng R.-Y.,Shanghai University | Li J.,Shanghai University | Hu L.,International Medical University | And 12 more authors.
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica | Year: 2014

Aim: Free fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity plays a crucial role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the present study we investigated the effects of a high-fat diet and free fatty acids on the autophagic process in hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro and the underlying mechanisms.Methods:LC3-II expression, a hallmark of autophagic flux, was detected in liver specimens from patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as well as in the livers of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) up to 16 weeks. LC3-II expression was also analyzed in human SMMC-7721 and HepG2 hepatoma cells exposed to palmitic acid (PA), a saturated fatty acid. PA-induced apoptosis was detected by Annexin V staining and specific cleavage of PARP in the presence and absence of different agents. Results: LC3-II expression was markedly increased in human NASH and in liver tissues of HFD-fed mice. Treatment of SMMC-7721 cells with PA increased LC3-II expression in time- and dose-dependent manners, whereas the unsaturated fatty acid oleic acid had no effect. Inhibition of autophagy with 3MA sensitized SMMC-7721 cells to PA-induced apoptosis, whereas activation of autophagy by rapamycin attenuated PA-induced PARP cleavage. The autophagy-associated proteins Beclin1 and Atg5 were essential for PA-induced autophagy in SMMC-7721 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with SP600125, an inhibitor of JNK, effectively abrogated PA-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. Specific knockdown of JNK2, but not JNK1, in SMMC-7721 cells significantly suppressed PA-induced autophagy and enhanced its pro-apoptotic activity; whereas specific knockdown of JNK1 had the converse effect. Similar results were obtained when HepG2 cells were tested. Conclusion: JNK1 promotes PA-induced lipoapoptosis, whereas JNK2 activates pro-survival autophagy and inhibits PA lipotoxicity. Our results suggest that modulation of autophagy may have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of lipid-related metabolic diseases. © 2014 CPS and SIMM.

Wang R.-Y.,International Co operation Laboratory on Signal Transduction | Chen L.,International Co operation Laboratory on Signal Transduction | Chen H.-Y.,International Co operation Laboratory on Signal Transduction | Hu L.,International Co operation Laboratory on Signal Transduction | And 21 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

Background & Aims Aberrant expression of MUC15 correlates with development of colorectal adenocarcinoma, and MUC15 has been reported to prevent trophoblast invasion of human placenta. However, little is known about the role of MUC15 in pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods We analyzed HCC samples and matched nontumor liver tissues (controls) collected from 313 patients who underwent hepatectomy in Shanghai, China, from January 2006 through September 2009. Levels of messenger RNAs and proteins were determined by immunohistochemical, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot analyses. Statistical analyses were used to associate levels of MUC15 with tumor features and patient outcomes. Results Levels of MUC15 messenger RNA and protein were reduced in a greater percentage of HCC samples than control tissues. Tumors with reduced levels of MUC15 were more likely to have aggressive characteristics (eg, high levels of α-fetoprotein, vascular invasion, lack of encapsulation, and poor differentiation) than those with low levels. Patients whose tumors had reduced levels of MUC15 had shorter overall survival times (24 months vs 46 months for patients with tumors with high levels of MUC15) and time to disease recurrence. Stable expression of MUC15 in HCC cell lines (SMMC-7721 and HCC-LM3) reduced their proliferation and invasive features in vitro, and ability to form metastatic tumors in mice. MUC15 reduced transcription of the matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 7 increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, which required phosphoinositide 3-kinase-v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog signaling. Physical interaction between MUC15 and epidermal growth factor receptor led to its relocation and degradation within early endosomes and was required for inactivation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog signaling. Conclusions Reduced levels of MUC15 in HCCs are associated with shorter survival times of patients and reduced time to disease recurrence. Expression of MUC15 in HCC cells reduces their aggressive behavior in vitro and in mice by inducing dimerization of epidermal growth factor receptor and decreasing phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling via v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog. © 2013 by the AGA Institute.

Liu Z.,Anal Colorectal Surgery Institute
British journal of cancer | Year: 2013

In evidence-based medicine (EBM), systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been widely applied in biological and medical research. Moreover, the most popular application of meta-analyses in this field may be to examine diagnostic (sensitivity and specificity) and prognostic (hazard ratio (HR) and its variance, standard error (SE) or confidence interval (CI)) test accuracy. However, conducting such analyses requires not only a great deal of time but also an advanced professional knowledge of mathematics, statistics and computer science. Regarding the practical application of meta-analyses for diagnostic and prognostic markers, the majority of users are clinicians and biologists, most of whom are not skilled at mathematics and computer science in particular. Hence, it is necessary for these users to have a simplified version of a protocol to help them to quickly conduct meta-analyses of the accuracy of diagnostic and prognostic tests. The aim of this paper is to enable individuals who have never performed a meta-analysis to do so from scratch. The paper does not attempt to serve as a comprehensive theoretical guide but instead describes one rigorous way of conducting a meta-analysis for diagnostic and prognostic markers. Investigators who follow the outlined methods should be able to understand the basic ideas behind the steps taken, the meaning of the meta-analysis results obtained for diagnostic and prognostic markers and the scope of questions that can be answered with Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (SRMA). The presented protocols have been successfully tested by clinicians without meta-analysis experience.

Lu Y.,Shanghai University | Liu Z.,Anal Colorectal Surgery Institute | Yao Z.,No. 150 Central Hospital of PLA | Li C.,Sichuan Cancer Hospital | Gao C.,Anal Colorectal Surgery Institute
Comparative and Functional Genomics | Year: 2011

Diffuse astrocytoma of (WHO grade II) has a tendency to progress spontaneously to anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III) and/or glioblastoma (WHO grade IV). However, the molecular basis of astrocytoma progression is still poorly understood. In current study, an essential initial step toward this goal is the establishment of the taxonomy of tumors on the basis of their gene expression profiles. We have used gene expression profiling, unsupervised (hierarchal cluster (HCL) and principal component analysis (PCA)) and supervised (prediction analysis for microarrays (PAM)) learning methods, to demonstrate the presence of three distinct gene expression signatures of astrocytomas (ACMs), which correspond to diffuse or low-grade astrocytoma (WHO grade II), Anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III) and Glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade IV). We also demonstrate a 171 gene-based classifier that characterize the distinction between these pathologic/molecular subsets of astrocytomas. These results further define molecular subtypes of astrocytomas and may potentially be used to define potential targets and further refine stratification approaches for therapy. In addition, this study demonstrates that combining gene expression analysis with detailed annotated pathway and gene ontology (GO) category resources was applied to highly enriched normal and tumor population; it can yield an understanding of the critical biological mechanism of astrocytomas. © 2011 Zhongyu Liu et al.

Liu Z.,Anal Colorectal Surgery Institute | Liu Z.,University of Sichuan | Niu Y.,University of Sichuan | Li C.,Sichuan Cancer Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Head and Neck | Year: 2012

Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most common type of carcinoma worldwide. The pathogenic pathways involved in this cancer are mostly unknown; therefore, a better characterization of the OSCC gene expression profile would represent a considerable advance. The public availability of gene expression datasets was meant to obtain new insights on biological processes. Methods We integrated 4 public microarray datasets on OSCC to evaluate the degree of consistency among the biological results obtained in these different studies and to identify common regulatory pathways that could be responsible for tumor growth. Results Twelve altered cellular pathways implicated in OSCC and 4 genes altered in the extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor pathway were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Conclusion Using 4 expression array datasets, we have developed a robust method for analyzing pathways altered in OSCC. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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