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Anahuac University of North Mexico

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Tellez R.,Depto. de Farmacobiologia | Gomez-Viquez L.,Depto. de Farmacobiologia | Liy-Salmeron G.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Meneses A.,Depto. de Farmacobiologia
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory | Year: 2012

Notwithstanding several neurotransmission systems are frequently related to memory formation; forgetting process and neurotransmission systems or their transporters; the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GAT1), glutamate (EACC1), dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) is poorly understood. Hence, in this paper western-blot analysis was used to evaluate expression of GAT1, EAAC1, DAT and SERT during forgetting in trained and untrained rats treated with the selective serotonin transporter inhibitor fluoxetine, the amnesic drug d-methamphetamine (METH) and fluoxetine plus METH. Transporters expression was determined in the hippocampus (HIP), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum (STR). Results indicated that forgetting of Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping was associated to up-regulation of GAT1 (PFC and HIP) and DAT (PFC) while SERT (HIP) was down-regulated; no-changes were observed in striatum. Methamphetamine administration did not affect forgetting at 216. h post-training but up-regulated hippocampal DAT and EACC, prefrontal cortex DAT and striatal GAT1 or EACC1. Fluoxetine alone prevented forgetting, which was associated to striatal GAT1 and hippocampal DAT up-regulation, but prefrontal cortex GAT1 down-regulation. Fluoxetine plus METH administration was also able to prevent forgetting, which was associated to hippocampal DAT, prefrontal cortex SERT and striatal GAT1, DAT or SERT up-regulation, but prefrontal cortex GAT1 down-regulation. Together these data show that forgetting provokes primarily hippocampal and prefrontal cortex transporters changes; forgetting represent a behavioral process hardly modifiable and its prevention could causes different transporters expression patterns. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Meneses A.,CINVESTAV | Liy-Salmeron G.,Anahuac University of North Mexico
Reviews in the Neurosciences | Year: 2012

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamien, 5-HT) has been linked to emotional and motivational aspects of human behavior, including anxiety, depression, impulsivity, etc. Several clinically effective drugs exert effects via 5-HT systems. Growing evidence suggests that those effects play an important role in learning and memory. Whether the role of serotonin is related to memory and/or behavioral or emotional aspects remains an important question. A key question that remains is whether 5-HT markers (e.g., receptors) directly or indirectly participate and/or contribute to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis. The major aim of this paper is to re-examine some recent advances regarding mammalian 5-HT receptors and transporter in light of their physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for memory. We particularly address evidence involving 5-HT systems in behavioral, pharmacological, molecular, genetic and imaging results and memory. Finally, this paper aims to summarize a portion of the evidence about serotonin, memory and emotion from animal and human studies and provide an overview of potential tools, markers and cellular and molecular candidate mechanisms. It should be noted that there are several subjects that this paper only briefly touches upon, presenting only what may be the most salient findings in the context of memory, emotion and serotonin.


Morales I.-I.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Toscano-Tejeida D.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Ibarra A.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Ibarra A.,Research Center Del Proyecto Camina Ac
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2016

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex condition that can result in functional impairment and paralysis, and occurs more frequently in young men. Several studies tested diverse treatments; however none achieved effective neuronal regeneration or improvement in neural function. Current research is being performed in areas such as cellular therapy (Schwann cells, embryonic stem cells, pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and olfactory cells), growth factors (BDNF), inhibitory molecules, fibroglial scar, gene therapies, etc. Some strategies have provided encouraging results by themselves, others have been tested as a combination, showing an improved out-come after SCI. Combined strategies could be more effective than individual therapies; for instance, co transplantation of cells at the injury site to maximize their effect has been used, and it has demonstrated a greater efficacy in comparison to grafts of stem cells or of a particular cell type. The combination of neurotrophic factors such as BDNF and NT-3 enhances axonal regeneration and myelination; other therapies include the use of biological matrices in combination with inhibitors of glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) has shown synergistic effects with other strategies, specifically to improve regeneration and functional recovery after SCI. Experimental evidence suggests that it is possible to obtain better results with a combination of strategies, which justifies further research for therapeutic approaches. This review intends to compile the most relevant information about available up-to-date therapeutic strategies that are administered alone or in combination with others, and have offered the best results in neural regeneration after spinal cord injury. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.


Flores-Dominguez C.,Anahuac University of North Mexico
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Life expectancy has always been associated to several determinants, such as environmental and genetic factors. Studies have related human lifespan as being 25-32 % due to genetic polymorphisms between individuals associated to longevity and aging. Nonetheless, no single gene will convey a phenotype like longevity. Aging is a process that occurs from changes in various levels of the cell, from genes to functions. Longevity is the ability to cope and repair the damage that results from these changes. It has been described as the result of an optimal performance of immune system and as an overexpression of anti-inflammatory sequence variants of immune/inflammatory genes. Longevity gene candidates can be separated into the following categories: inflammatory and immune-related, stress response elements, mediators of glucose and lipid metabolism, DNA repair components and cellular proliferation, and DNA haplogroups. Studies have related lifespan with Common Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs); polygenic effects can explain an important part of how genetics influence it. In this chapter we describe how to sequence Class I HLA allele polymorphism, as well as SNP sequencing, two methodologies most frequently used in polymorphism detection. © Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013.


Meneses A.,CINVESTAV | Perez-Garcia G.,CINVESTAV | Liy-Salmeron G.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Ponce-Lopez T.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | And 2 more authors.
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2015

Rationale: The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) 5-HT7 receptor is localized in brain areas mediating memory; however, the role of this receptor on memory remains little explored. Objective: First, demonstrating the associative nature of Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping (P/I-A) task, rats were exposed (three sessions) to CS-US (Pavlovian autoshaping), truly random control, free operant, and presentations of US or CS, and they were compared with rats trained-tested for one session to the P/I-A procedure. Also, effects of the 5-HT7 receptor agonist LP-211 administered intraperitoneally after training was determined on short- (1.5 h) and long-term memory 24 and 48 h) and on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and cAMP production. Methods: Autoshaping and its behavioral controls were studied. Other animals were subjected to an autoshaping training session and immediately afterwards were given (intraperitoneal) vehicle or LP-211 (0.1-10 mg/kg) and/or scopolamine (0.2 mg/kg) and tested for short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM); their brains were extracted for the cAMP ELISA immunoassay. Results: P/I-A group produced the higher %CR. LP-211 did not affect STM; nonetheless, at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, it improved LTM. The 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 (SB; 10.0 mg/kg) alone had no effect; nevertheless, the LP-211 (1.0 mg/kg) LTM facilitation was reversed by SB. The scopolamine (0.2 mg/kg) induced-decrement in CR was accompanied by significant increased cAMP production. The scopolamine-induced decrement in CR and increments in cAMP were significantly attenuated by LP-211. Conclusions: Autoshaping is a reliable associative learning task whose consolidation is facilitated by the 5-HT7 receptor agonist LP-211. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sanchez-Vergara M.E.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Rivera M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids | Year: 2014

Semiconducting molecular materials based on aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPcCl) and bidentate amines have been successfully used to prepare thin films by using a thermal evaporation technique. The morphology of the deposited films was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Studies of the optical properties were carried out on films deposited onto quartz and (1 0 0) monocrystalline silicon wafers and films annealed after deposition. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV-vis region for the as-deposited and annealed samples showed two absorption bands, namely the Q- and B-bands. In addition, an energy doublet in the absorption spectra of the monoclinic form at 1.81 and 1.99 eV was observed. A band-model theory was employed in order to determine the optical parameters. The fundamental energy gap (direct transitions) was determined to be within the 2.47-2.59 and 2.24-2.44 eV ranges, respectively, for the as-deposited and annealed thin films. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Blachman-Braun R.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Del Mazo-Rodriguez R.L.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Lopez-Samano G.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Buendia-Roldan I.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Respiratorias
Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2014

The hookah is a snuff smoking device whose origin dates back to the fifteenth century, has been used extensively in the Middle East in recent decades has become popular in Western culture countries, particularly in Americas and Europe. It has been reported that like other forms smoking tobacco, their use can lead to addiction also is used for inhaling and other addictive substances. Has also been considered a risk factor for various isolated diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), different types of cancer, hemodynamic alterations, vascular disease, infectious diseases, among others. In pregnant women has been reported that there use condition a diminution on fetal growth and different diseases in the newborn. It was also mentioned that hookah smoke contains several toxic substances that can affect both, the primary and the passive smoker, so we did this review to determine the complications associated with its use. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ponce-Lopez T.,CINVESTAV | Liy-Salmeron G.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Hong E.,CINVESTAV | Meneses A.,CINVESTAV
Brain Research | Year: 2011

Intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) treated rat has been described as a suitable model for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Central application of STZ has demonstrated behavioral and neurochemical features that resembled those found in human AD. Chronic treatments with antioxidants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, or improving glucose utilization drugs have reported a beneficial effect in ICV STZ-treated rats. In the present study the post-training administration of a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3) inhibitor, lithium; antidementia drugs: phenserine and memantine, and insulin sensitizer, pioglitazone on memory function of ICV STZ-rats was assessed. In these same animals the phosphorylated GSK3β (p-GSK3β) and total GSK3β levels were determined, and importantly GSK3β regulates the tau phosphorylation responsible for neurofibrillary tangle formation in AD. Wistar rats received ICV STZ application (3 mg/kg twice) and 2 weeks later short- (STM) and long-term memories (LTM) were assessed in an autoshaping learning task. Animals were sacrificed immediately following the last autoshaping session, their brains removed and dissected. The enzymes were measured in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) by western blot. ICV STZ-treated rats showed a memory deficit and significantly decreased p-GSK3β levels, while total GSK3β did not change, in both the hippocampus and PFC. Memory impairment was reversed by lithium (100 mg/kg), phenserine (1 mg/kg), memantine (5 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (30 mg/kg). The p-GSK3β levels were restored by lithium, phenserine and pioglitazone in the hippocampus, and restored by lithium in the PFC. Memantine produced no changes in p-GSK3β levels in neither the hippocampus nor PFC. Total GSK3β levels did not change with either drug. Altogether these results show the beneficial effects of drugs with different mechanisms of actions on memory impairment induced by ICV STZ, and restored p-GSK3β levels, a kinase key of signaling cascade of insulin receptor. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Puente-Diaz R.,Anahuac University of North Mexico
International journal of psychology : Journal international de psychologie | Year: 2014

Human judgments are context dependent. When answering a question about one's overall satisfaction with life, a previous question about one's romantic life might pose redundancy problems influencing one's judgment of life satisfaction, something known as item order effects. However, in order to detect such redundancy, one needs to pay attention to the context of the conversation. Any variable that influences the amount of attention given the context of the conversation can determine whether the presumed redundancy is detected or not. In three studies, two experiments and one correlational study, we tested the influence of induced self-construal (study 1) and self-regulatory focus (study 2) and self-regulatory focus measured as an individual difference variable (study 3) as moderators of context effects among college students from Mexico. In study 1, participants induced to have an independent mindset were less likely to detect the redundancy posed by two questions, resulting, as predicted, in a contrast effect. In study 3, participants with lower levels of prevention focus were less likely to detect the redundancy posed by the same two questions as study 1, resulting, as predicted, in an assimilation effect. The implications of the results were discussed within the framework of the inclusion/exclusion model. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.


Valdes V.,Anahuac University of North Mexico
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2015

The aim of this paper is to calculate the effects of air travel demand determinants in Middle Income Countries (MICs). Through static and dynamic panel data models from 32 countries during the period from 2002 to 2008, we found that the income elasticity is the most important determinant and that it is slightly higher than one. Income growth multiplied by income elasticity accounts for 75 percent of total passenger growth. Public policies such as an open skies agreements with the European Union have a positive effect on passenger growth, whereas structural changes, such as Low Cost Carrier (LCC) growth, have a marginal effect. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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