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Flores-Dominguez C.,Anahuac University of North Mexico
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Life expectancy has always been associated to several determinants, such as environmental and genetic factors. Studies have related human lifespan as being 25-32 % due to genetic polymorphisms between individuals associated to longevity and aging. Nonetheless, no single gene will convey a phenotype like longevity. Aging is a process that occurs from changes in various levels of the cell, from genes to functions. Longevity is the ability to cope and repair the damage that results from these changes. It has been described as the result of an optimal performance of immune system and as an overexpression of anti-inflammatory sequence variants of immune/inflammatory genes. Longevity gene candidates can be separated into the following categories: inflammatory and immune-related, stress response elements, mediators of glucose and lipid metabolism, DNA repair components and cellular proliferation, and DNA haplogroups. Studies have related lifespan with Common Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs); polygenic effects can explain an important part of how genetics influence it. In this chapter we describe how to sequence Class I HLA allele polymorphism, as well as SNP sequencing, two methodologies most frequently used in polymorphism detection. © Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013.


Carmona Benitez R.B.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Carmona Paredes R.B.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Lodewijks G.,Technical University of Delft | Nabais J.L.,IDMEC
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2013

This paper presents a modification of the Grey Model (GM) to forecast routes passenger demand growth in the air transportation industry. Forecast methods like Holt-Winters, autoreg ressive models, exponen- tia smoothing, neural network, fuzzy logic, GM model calculate very high airlines routes pax growth. For this reason, a modification has been done to the GM model to damp trend calculations as time grows. The simulation results show that the modified GM model reduces the model exponential estimations grow. It allows the GM model to forecast reasonable routes passenger demand for long lead-times forecasts. It makes this model an option to calculate airlines routes pax flow when few data points are available. The United States domestic air transport market data are used to compare the performance of the GM model wit hthe proposed model. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Meneses A.,CINVESTAV | Perez-Garcia G.,CINVESTAV | Liy-Salmeron G.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Ponce-Lopez T.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | And 2 more authors.
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2015

Rationale: The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) 5-HT7 receptor is localized in brain areas mediating memory; however, the role of this receptor on memory remains little explored. Objective: First, demonstrating the associative nature of Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping (P/I-A) task, rats were exposed (three sessions) to CS-US (Pavlovian autoshaping), truly random control, free operant, and presentations of US or CS, and they were compared with rats trained-tested for one session to the P/I-A procedure. Also, effects of the 5-HT7 receptor agonist LP-211 administered intraperitoneally after training was determined on short- (1.5 h) and long-term memory 24 and 48 h) and on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and cAMP production. Methods: Autoshaping and its behavioral controls were studied. Other animals were subjected to an autoshaping training session and immediately afterwards were given (intraperitoneal) vehicle or LP-211 (0.1-10 mg/kg) and/or scopolamine (0.2 mg/kg) and tested for short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM); their brains were extracted for the cAMP ELISA immunoassay. Results: P/I-A group produced the higher %CR. LP-211 did not affect STM; nonetheless, at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, it improved LTM. The 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 (SB; 10.0 mg/kg) alone had no effect; nevertheless, the LP-211 (1.0 mg/kg) LTM facilitation was reversed by SB. The scopolamine (0.2 mg/kg) induced-decrement in CR was accompanied by significant increased cAMP production. The scopolamine-induced decrement in CR and increments in cAMP were significantly attenuated by LP-211. Conclusions: Autoshaping is a reliable associative learning task whose consolidation is facilitated by the 5-HT7 receptor agonist LP-211. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sanchez-Vergara M.E.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Rivera M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids | Year: 2014

Semiconducting molecular materials based on aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPcCl) and bidentate amines have been successfully used to prepare thin films by using a thermal evaporation technique. The morphology of the deposited films was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Studies of the optical properties were carried out on films deposited onto quartz and (1 0 0) monocrystalline silicon wafers and films annealed after deposition. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV-vis region for the as-deposited and annealed samples showed two absorption bands, namely the Q- and B-bands. In addition, an energy doublet in the absorption spectra of the monoclinic form at 1.81 and 1.99 eV was observed. A band-model theory was employed in order to determine the optical parameters. The fundamental energy gap (direct transitions) was determined to be within the 2.47-2.59 and 2.24-2.44 eV ranges, respectively, for the as-deposited and annealed thin films. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Sanchez-Vergara M.E.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Alonso-Huitron J.C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Rodriguez-Gomez A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Reider-Burstin J.N.,Anahuac University of North Mexico
Molecules | Year: 2012

Semiconducting thin films were grown on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers, using dilithium phthalocyanine and the organic ligands 2,6-dihydroxyanthraquinone and 2,6-diaminoanthraquinone as the starting compounds. The films, thus obtained, were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR), fast atomic bombardment (FAB+) mass and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies. The surface morphology of these films was analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the temperature-dependent electric current in all cases showed a semiconductor behavior with conductivities on the order of 10 -6·S cm -1, whereas the highest value corresponded to the thin film based upon the bidentate amine. The Tauc and Cody optical band gap values of thin films were calculated from the absorption coefficients and were found to be around 1.5 eV, with another strong band between 2.3 and 2.43 eV, arising from non-direct transitions. The curvature in the Tauc plot influencing the determination of the optical gap, the Tauc optical gap corresponding to the thicker film is smaller. The dependence of the Cody optical gap on the film thickness was negligible. © 2012 by the authors.


Blachman-Braun R.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Del Mazo-Rodriguez R.L.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Lopez-Samano G.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Buendia-Roldan I.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Respiratorias
Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2014

The hookah is a snuff smoking device whose origin dates back to the fifteenth century, has been used extensively in the Middle East in recent decades has become popular in Western culture countries, particularly in Americas and Europe. It has been reported that like other forms smoking tobacco, their use can lead to addiction also is used for inhaling and other addictive substances. Has also been considered a risk factor for various isolated diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), different types of cancer, hemodynamic alterations, vascular disease, infectious diseases, among others. In pregnant women has been reported that there use condition a diminution on fetal growth and different diseases in the newborn. It was also mentioned that hookah smoke contains several toxic substances that can affect both, the primary and the passive smoker, so we did this review to determine the complications associated with its use. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ponce-Lopez T.,CINVESTAV | Liy-Salmeron G.,Anahuac University of North Mexico | Hong E.,CINVESTAV | Meneses A.,CINVESTAV
Brain Research | Year: 2011

Intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) treated rat has been described as a suitable model for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Central application of STZ has demonstrated behavioral and neurochemical features that resembled those found in human AD. Chronic treatments with antioxidants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, or improving glucose utilization drugs have reported a beneficial effect in ICV STZ-treated rats. In the present study the post-training administration of a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3) inhibitor, lithium; antidementia drugs: phenserine and memantine, and insulin sensitizer, pioglitazone on memory function of ICV STZ-rats was assessed. In these same animals the phosphorylated GSK3β (p-GSK3β) and total GSK3β levels were determined, and importantly GSK3β regulates the tau phosphorylation responsible for neurofibrillary tangle formation in AD. Wistar rats received ICV STZ application (3 mg/kg twice) and 2 weeks later short- (STM) and long-term memories (LTM) were assessed in an autoshaping learning task. Animals were sacrificed immediately following the last autoshaping session, their brains removed and dissected. The enzymes were measured in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) by western blot. ICV STZ-treated rats showed a memory deficit and significantly decreased p-GSK3β levels, while total GSK3β did not change, in both the hippocampus and PFC. Memory impairment was reversed by lithium (100 mg/kg), phenserine (1 mg/kg), memantine (5 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (30 mg/kg). The p-GSK3β levels were restored by lithium, phenserine and pioglitazone in the hippocampus, and restored by lithium in the PFC. Memantine produced no changes in p-GSK3β levels in neither the hippocampus nor PFC. Total GSK3β levels did not change with either drug. Altogether these results show the beneficial effects of drugs with different mechanisms of actions on memory impairment induced by ICV STZ, and restored p-GSK3β levels, a kinase key of signaling cascade of insulin receptor. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Montes-De-Oca R.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Lemus-Rodriguez E.,Anahuac University of North Mexico
Kybernetika | Year: 2012

This paper deals with a certain class of unbounded optimization problems. The optimization problems taken into account depend on a parameter. Firstly, there are established conditions which permit to guarantee the continuity with respect to the parameter of the minimum of the optimization problems under consideration, and the upper semicontinuity of the multifunction which applies each parameter into its set of minimizers. Besides, with the additional condition of uniqueness of the minimizer, its continuity is given. Some examples of nonconvex optimization problems that satisfy the conditions of the article are supplied. Secondly, the theory developed is applied to discounted Markov decision processes with unbounded cost functions and with possibly noncompact actions sets in order to obtain continuous optimal policies. This part of the paper is illustrated with two examples of the controlled Lindley's random walk. One of these examples has nonconstant action sets.


Puente-Diaz R.,Anahuac University of North Mexico
International journal of psychology : Journal international de psychologie | Year: 2014

Human judgments are context dependent. When answering a question about one's overall satisfaction with life, a previous question about one's romantic life might pose redundancy problems influencing one's judgment of life satisfaction, something known as item order effects. However, in order to detect such redundancy, one needs to pay attention to the context of the conversation. Any variable that influences the amount of attention given the context of the conversation can determine whether the presumed redundancy is detected or not. In three studies, two experiments and one correlational study, we tested the influence of induced self-construal (study 1) and self-regulatory focus (study 2) and self-regulatory focus measured as an individual difference variable (study 3) as moderators of context effects among college students from Mexico. In study 1, participants induced to have an independent mindset were less likely to detect the redundancy posed by two questions, resulting, as predicted, in a contrast effect. In study 3, participants with lower levels of prevention focus were less likely to detect the redundancy posed by the same two questions as study 1, resulting, as predicted, in an assimilation effect. The implications of the results were discussed within the framework of the inclusion/exclusion model. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.


Valdes V.,Anahuac University of North Mexico
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2015

The aim of this paper is to calculate the effects of air travel demand determinants in Middle Income Countries (MICs). Through static and dynamic panel data models from 32 countries during the period from 2002 to 2008, we found that the income elasticity is the most important determinant and that it is slightly higher than one. Income growth multiplied by income elasticity accounts for 75 percent of total passenger growth. Public policies such as an open skies agreements with the European Union have a positive effect on passenger growth, whereas structural changes, such as Low Cost Carrier (LCC) growth, have a marginal effect. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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