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De Vito A.,Ear Nose Throat Unit | Carrasco Llatas M.,Hospital Universitario Dr Peset | Vanni A.,Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit | Bosi M.,Morgagni Pierantoni Hospital | And 13 more authors.
Sleep and Breathing

Methods: The authors have evaluated all the available evidence reported in the literature and have compared experience among various departments in leading European centers in order to provide a standardization of the DISE procedure and an in-depth insight in the main aspects of this technique.Background: Although drug-induced sedation endoscopy (DISE) represents the most widespread diagnostic tool for upper airway endoscopic evaluation of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), many controversies exist about how to perform the sedation, the indications for DISE, and how to report DISE findings. The present position paper reports on a consensus as proposed by a group of European experts in the field of DISE after discussion during a recent dedicated meeting.Results: A proposal of the DISE procedure standardization has been achieved with a general agreement concerning the terminology, indications, contraindications, required preliminary examinations, setting, technical equipment required, staffing, local anesthesia and nasal decongestion, patient positioning, basis and special diagnostic maneuvers, and the applied sedation drugs and observation windows. Otherwise, no consensus has been reached on a scoring and classification system.Conclusions: Although consensus has been reached on several aspects of the DISE procedure, some topics remain open to future research, such as a better analysis of the importance of positional aspects during DISE and a further comparison of the differences in degree, level and pattern of upper airway collapse observed during DISE versus during natural sleep and awake endoscopy. Finally, a universally accepted scoring and classification system is lacking. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Soldati G.,Valle del Serchio General Hospital | Inchingolo R.,University Hospital melli | Smargiassi A.,University Hospital melli | Sher S.,Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit | And 3 more authors.
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology

Ultrasound (US) interstitial syndrome is a sonographic lung pattern characterized by the presence of acoustic artifacts (B-lines and white lung). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how interstitial syndrome is determined by acoustic interactions in lungs of variable density and in healthy organs deflated to a nonphysiologic level of density. Normal rabbit lungs were studied ex vivo by US at varying known degrees of inflation, and their histologic appearances were described. In this experimental setting, US interstitial syndrome recognizes a mechanism related to tissue density or porosity. Artifacts (B-lines and white lung) appear in the normal rabbit lung through air-dependent increases in density. As in pathologic conditions, US interstitial syndrome can be reproduced in histologically normal lungs that are deflated to a critical level (>0.45 g/mL) of density, which is not achievable under physiologic conditions. © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Source

Vargas M.,University of Naples Federico II | Servillo G.,University of Naples Federico II | Tessitore G.,University of Naples Federico II | Aloj F.,Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit | And 5 more authors.
Respiratory Care

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy is normally a bronchoscope-guided procedure. The insertion of a bronchoscope into an endotracheal tube (ETT) affects resistance, flow, and alveolar pressure. To improve airway management and ventilation during percutaneous tracheostomy, we developed a double lumen endotracheal tube (DLET). The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the linear constant of the Rohrer equation (K1), the nonlinear constant of the Rohrer equation (K2), the inspiratory and expiratory airway resistance, and ventilatory and airway pressures using the DLET with different standard sized ETTs. METHODS: A trachea and lung model was used to compare the DLET to ETTs with 7, 7.5, and 8 mm inner diameters with and without a bronchoscope (4.5 mm external diameter), and 4 and 5 mm inner diameter ventilation tubes (F4, F5) of a translaryngeal tracheostomy. For each device, the pressure drop across the device and the Rohrer equation linear constant (K1) and nonlinear constant (K2) were calculated during a continuous flow of 10–90 L/min, the inspiratory and expiratory airway resistance values were calculated during volume controlled mechanical ventilation, and respiratory airway pressure values were calculated during volume and pressure controlled mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: DLET had lower K2, pressure drop, and inspiratory and expiratory airway resistance compared with conventionalETTsplus fiberoptic bronchoscope. Furthermore, during mechanical ventilation,DLET had a lower value of peak pressure, mean pressure, and intrinsic PEEP than the other ETTs plus fiberoptic bronchoscope. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the DLET during percutaneous dilational tracheostomy allows fiberoptic bronchoscopy without imposing excessive airway resistance. Reduced tube resistance during this procedure may confer additional safety in what is well known to be a hazardous procedure. © 2014 Daedalus Enterprises. Source

Caraceni A.,Palliative Care | Caraceni A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Hanks G.,University of Bristol | Kaasa S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 24 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology

Here we provide the updated version of the guidelines of the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) on the use of opioids for the treatment of cancer pain. The update was undertaken by the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative. Previous EAPC guidelines were reviewed and compared with other currently available guidelines, and consensus recommendations were created by formal international expert panel. The content of the guidelines was defined according to several topics, each of which was assigned to collaborators who developed systematic literature reviews with a common methodology. The recommendations were developed by a writing committee that combined the evidence derived from the systematic reviews with the panellists' evaluations in a co-authored process, and were endorsed by the EAPC Board of Directors. The guidelines are presented as a list of 16 evidence-based recommendations developed according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

De Vito A.,Head and Neck Surgery and Oral Surgery Unit | Agnoletti V.,Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit | Berrettini S.,University of Pisa | Piraccini E.,Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit | And 5 more authors.
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

Understanding the sites of pharyngeal collapse is mandatory for surgical treatment decision-making in obstructive sleep-apnea-hypopnea syndrome patients. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) allows for the direct observation of the upper airway during sedative-induced sleep. In order to re-create snoring and apnea patterns related to a spontaneous sleep situation, the authors used a target-controlled infusion (TCI) sleep endoscopy (DISE-TCI), comparing this technique to conventional DISE, in which sedation was reached by a manual bolus injection. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, unicenter study. The apneic event observation and its correlation with pharyngeal collapse patterns is the primary endpoint; secondary endpoints are defined as stability and safety of sedation plans of DISE-TCI technique. From January 2009 to June 2009, 40 OSAHS patients were included in the study and randomized allocated in two groups: the bolus injection conventional DISE group and the DISE-TCI group. We recorded the complete apnea event at the oropharynx and hypopharynx levels in 4 patients of the conventional DISE group (20%) and in 17 patients of the DISE-TCI group (85%) (P < 0.0001). Two patients needed oxygen in the conventional DISE group because of severe desaturation that resulted from the first bolus of propofol (1 mg/kg) (P = 0.4872 ns). We recorded the instability of the sedation plan in 13 patients from the conventional DISE group (65%) and 1 patient from the DISE-TCI group (5%) (P = 0.0001). Our results suggest that the DISE-TCI technique should be the first choice in performing sleep endoscopy because of its increased accuracy, stability and safety. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

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