Guatemala City, Guatemala
Guatemala City, Guatemala
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Avelino J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Avelino J.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | Cristancho M.,National Coffee Research Center | Georgiou S.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | And 7 more authors.
Food Security | Year: 2015

Coffee rust is a leaf disease caused by the fungus, Hemileia vastatrix. Coffee rust epidemics, with intensities higher than previously observed, have affected a number of countries including: Colombia, from 2008 to 2011; Central America and Mexico, in 2012–13; and Peru and Ecuador in 2013. There are many contributing factors to the onset of these epidemics e.g. the state of the economy, crop management decisions and the prevailing weather, and many resulting impacts e.g. on production, on farmers’ and labourers’ income and livelihood, and on food security. Production has been considerably reduced in Colombia (by 31 % on average during the epidemic years compared with 2007) and Central America (by 16 % in 2013 compared with 2011–12 and by 10 % in 2013–14 compared with 2012–13). These reductions have had direct impacts on the livelihoods of thousands of smallholders and harvesters. For these populations, particularly in Central America, coffee is often the only source of income used to buy food and supplies for the cultivation of basic grains. As a result, the coffee rust epidemic has had indirect impacts on food security. The main drivers of these epidemics are economic and meteorological. All the intense epidemics experienced during the last 37 years in Central America and Colombia were concurrent with low coffee profitability periods due to coffee price declines, as was the case in the 2012–13 Central American epidemic, or due to increases in input costs, as in the 2008–11 Colombian epidemics. Low profitability led to suboptimal coffee management, which resulted in increased plant vulnerability to pests and diseases. A common factor in the recent Colombian and Central American epidemics was a reduction in the diurnal thermal amplitude, with higher minimum/lower maximum temperatures (+0.1 °C/-0.5 °C on average during 2008–2011 compared to a low coffee rust incidence period, 1991–1994, in Chinchiná, Colombia; +0.9 °C/-1.2 °C on average in 2012 compared with prevailing climate, in 1224 farms from Guatemala). This likely decreased the latency period of the disease. These epidemics should be considered as a warning for the future, as they were enhanced by weather conditions consistent with climate change. Appropriate actions need to be taken in the near future to address this issue including: the development and establishment of resistant coffee cultivars; the creation of early warning systems; the design of crop management systems adapted to climate change and to pest and disease threats; and socio-economic solutions such as training and organisational strengthening. © 2015, The Author(s).

Villain L.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Sarah J.-L.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Hernandez A.,Fundacion Procafe | Bertrand B.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 5 more authors.
Nematropica | Year: 2013

The diversity of root knot nematodes parasitizing coffee orchards in Central America was newly assessed through a broad regional survey. Populations of Meloidogyne spp. were identified by their esterase phenotype. Eleven esterase phenotypes were observed and nine species identified. Meloidogyne exigua was the most widely distributed while M. arabicida, M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. izalcoensis and M. paranaensis appeared to be much more localized. Concerning M. paranaensis, only observed in Guatemala, the two-band esterase phenotypes prevailed. About M. arenaria, the one-band esterase phenotype (A1) was observed for the first time on coffee in one population in Guatemala. A three-band esterase phenotype (A3) was observed in two populations in El Salvador and could belong to M. morocciensis. The presence of M. enterolobii on coffee in Central America was confirmed with one population from Guatemala and another one from Costa Rica as a new report. Based on esterase diagnosis identifications of M. incognita were made for the first time on coffee in the region: in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala. Taken together, the results of the survey revealed a high number of root knot nematode species present on coffee throughout Central America.

Haggar J.,University of Greenwich | Medina B.,ANACAFE | Aguilar R.M.,ANACAFE | Munoz C.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center
Environmental Management | Year: 2013

Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35 % loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53 % lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha-1 was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha-1) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha-1). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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