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Emeryville, CA, United States

Zhao L.,Amyris Biotechnologies Inc. | Chang W.-C.,University of Texas at Austin | Xiao Y.,Boston University | Liu H.-W.,University of Texas at Austin | Liu P.,Boston University
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Isoprenoids are a class of natural products with more than 55,000 members. All isoprenoids are constructed from two precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate. Two of the most important discoveries in isoprenoid biosynthetic studies in recent years are the elucidation of a second isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and a modified mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway. In this review, we summarize mechanistic insights on the MEP pathway enzymes. Because many isoprenoids have important biological activities, the need to produce them in sufficient quantities for downstream research efforts or commercial application is apparent. Recent advances in both MVA and MEP pathway-based synthetic biology are also illustrated by reviewing the landmark work of artemisinic acid and taxadien-5α-ol production through microbial fermentations. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Patent
Kuraray Co. and Amyris Biotechnologies Inc. | Date: 2014-09-29

The thermoplastic elastomer composition of the present invention is a thermoplastic elastomer composition including a hydrogenated block copolymer (A) and a softening agent (B), the hydrogenated block copolymer (A) being a hydrogenated product of a block copolymer including a polymer block (a) composed of a constitutional unit derived from an aromatic vinyl compound and a polymer block (b) containing 1 to 100% by mass of a constitutional unit (b1) derived from farnesene and 99 to 0% by mass of a constitutional unit (b2) derived from a conjugated diene other than farnesene; a mass ratio of the polymer block (a) and the polymer block (b) [(a)/(b)] being 1/99 to 70/30; 50 mol % or more of carbon-carbon double bonds in the polymer block (b) being hydrogenated; and a content of the softening agent (B) being 20 to 2,000 parts by mass on the basis of 100 parts by mass of the hydrogenated block copolymer (A).


Patent
Amyris Biotechnologies Inc. | Date: 2014-09-02

Provided herein are compositions and methods for the heterologous production of acetyl-CoA-derived isoprenoids in a host cell. In some embodiments, the host cell is genetically modified to comprise a heterologous nucleotide sequence encoding an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, acetylating (ADA, E.C. 1.2.1.10) and an MEV pathway comprising an NADH-using HMG-CoA reductase. In some embodiments, the host cell is genetically modified to comprise a heterologous nucleotide sequence encoding an ADA and an MEV pathway comprising an acetoacetyl-CoA synthase. In some embodiments, the genetically modified host cell further comprises one or more heterologous nucleotide sequences encoding a phosphoketolase and a phosphotransacetylase. In some embodiments, the genetically modified host cell further comprises a functional disruption of the native PDH-bypass. The compositions and methods described herein provide an energy-efficient yet redox balanced route for the heterologous production of acetyl-CoA-derived isoprenoids.


Provided herein are compositions and methods for improved production of acetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA derived compounds in a host cell. In some embodiments, the host cell is genetically modified to comprise a heterologous nucleotide sequence encoding a phosphoketolase (PK), and a functional disruption of an endogenous enzyme that converts acetyl phosphate to acetate. In some embodiments, the host cell further comprises a heterologous nucleotide sequence encoding a phosphotransacetylase (PTA). In some embodiments, the enzyme that converts acetyl phosphate to acetate is a glycerol-1-phosphatase. In some embodiments, the glycerol-1-phosphatase is GPP1/RHR2. In some embodiments, the glycerol-1-phosphatase is GPP2/HOR2. The compositions and methods described herein provide an efficient route for the heterologous production of acetyl-CoA-derived compounds, including but not limited to, isoprenoids, polyketides, and fatty acids.


Patent
Amyris Biotechnologies Inc. | Date: 2015-10-23

Methods for producing an isoprenoid are provided. A plurality of bacterial or fungal host cells is obtained. These cells comprise a heterologous nucleic acid encoding one or more enzymes of a mevalonate pathway for making isopentenyl pyrophosphate. Expression of the one or more enzymes is under control one or more heterologous transcriptional regulator. The mevalonate pathway comprises (i) an enzyme that condenses acetoacetyl-CoA with acetyl-CoA to form HMG-CoA, (ii) an enzyme that converts HMG-CoA to mevalonate, (iii) an enzyme that phosphorylates mevalonate to mevalonate 5-phosphate, (iv) an enzyme that converts mevalonate 5-phosphate to mevalonate 5-pyrophosphate, and (v) an enzyme that converts mevalonate 5-pyrophosphate to isopentenyl pyrophosphate. The host cells are cultured in a medium under conditions that are suboptimal as compared to conditions for the maximum growth rate. Temperature is maintained at a level below that which would provide for a maximum specific growth rate for the host cells.

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