Amyloid Research and Treatment Center

Pavia, Italy

Amyloid Research and Treatment Center

Pavia, Italy
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Diomede L.,Irccs Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri | Romeo M.,Irccs Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri | Rognoni P.,Amyloid Research and Treatment Center | Beeg M.,Irccs Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri | And 13 more authors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2017

Aims: The knowledge of the mechanism underlying the cardiac damage in immunoglobulin light chain (LC) amyloidosis (AL) is essential to develop novel therapies and improve patients' outcome. Although an active role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LC-induced cardiotoxicity has already been envisaged, the actual mechanisms behind their generation remain elusive. This study was aimed at further dissecting the action of ROS generated by cardiotoxic LC in vivo and investigating whether transition metal ions are involved in this process. In the absence of reliable vertebrate model of AL, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, whose pharynx is an "ancestral heart." Results: LC purified from patients with severe cardiac involvement intrinsically generated high levels of ROS and when administered to C. elegans induced ROS production, activation of the DAF-16/forkhead transcription factor (FOXO) pathway, and expression of proteins involved in stress resistance and survival. Profound functional and structural ROS-mediated mitochondrial damage, similar to that observed in amyloid-affected hearts from AL patients, was observed. All these effects were entirely dependent on the presence of metal ions since addition of metal chelator or metal-binding 8-hydroxyquinoline compounds (chelex, PBT2, and clioquinol) permanently blocked the ROS production and prevented the cardiotoxic effects of amyloid LC. Innovation and Conclusion: Our findings identify the key role of metal ions in driving the ROS-mediated toxic effects of LC. This is a novel conceptual advance that paves the way for new pharmacological strategies aimed at not only counteracting but also totally inhibiting the vicious cycle of redox damage. © Copyright 2017, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2017.

Brambilla F.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Lavatelli F.,Amyloid Research and Treatment Center | Di Silvestre D.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Valentini V.,Amyloid Research and Treatment Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2013

In systemic amyloidosis, accumulation of misfolded proteins as extracellular amyloid fibrils in tissues causes severe organ dysfunction, but the molecular events of tissue damage related to amyloid deposition are still largely unknown. Through the use of the MudPIT proteomic approach, comprehensive protein profiles of human amyloid-affected adipose tissue from patients and its control (non-amyloid-affected) counterpart were acquired. Label-free comparison between patients and controls made it possible to highlight differences related to the presence of amyloid, by describing up- and down-represented proteins, connected into interacting networks. In particular, extracellular matrix (ECM), protein folding, lipid metabolism, and mitochondrial functions were among the most affected structural/functional pathways. The reported results, obtained with no a priori hypotheses, represent a significant step forward in the clarification of the molecular mechanisms involved in amyloidoses at tissue level and are the premise for understanding protein misfolding diseases. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Cantarini L.,University of Siena | Obici L.,Amyloid Research and Treatment Center | Simonini G.,University of Florence | Cimaz R.,University of Florence | And 7 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2012

Objectives: The aims of our study were to evaluate serum leptin, resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels in patients with tumour necrosis factor receptorassociated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), in comparison to healthy controls, and to correlate their levels to parameters of disease activity and/or severity. Methods: Serum leptin, resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels were obtained from 14 TRAPS patients carrying mutations involving cysteine residues, from 16 TRAPS patients carrying other mutations, and from 16 healthy controls. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters, including amyloidosis were entered for each patient. Comparisons between groups as well as reciprocal comparisons have been evaluated. Results: Serum leptin, resistin, visfatin and adiponectin did not significantly differ among the 3 groups. Patients carrying cysteine residues mutations showed lower visfatin serum levels than patients carrying other mutations (p<0.02). Serum leptin significantly correlated with the number of attacks/year (multiple R=0.32, multiple adjusted R2= 0.19, p<0.03). Serum adiponectin levels significantly correlated with the presence of amyloidosis (multiple R=0.79, multiple adjusted R2=0.57, p<0.03). Adiponectin values were a significant predictor for amyloidosis (AUC 0.75, 95 CI: 0.56-0.94, p<0.03), with a predicting cut-off value set at 23.16 pg/ml, the predictive positive value was 53.8%. Visfatin serum levels resulted respectively related to leptin (rs=0.42, r2=0.18, p<0.02) and to resistin (rs=0.57, r2=0.32, p<0.01) serum levels; whilst leptin and resistin serum levels did not reciprocally correlate. Conclusion: Although a prospective design study and larger cohort are mandatory, adipokines serum levels and their correlations with parameters of disease activity and/or severity seem to show a baseline pattern in TRAPS patients. © Clinical and experimental rheumatology 2012.

Lavatelli F.,Amyloid Research and Treatment Center | Albertini R.,Clinical Chemistry Laboratory | Di Fonzo A.,Amyloid Research and Treatment Center | Palladini G.,Amyloid Research and Treatment Center | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2014

Systemic amyloid diseases are characterized by widespread protein deposition as amyloid fibrils. Precise diagnostic framing is the prerequisite for a correct management of patients. This complex process is achieved through a series of steps, which include detection of the tissue amyloid deposits, identification of the amyloid type, demonstration of the amyloidogenic precursor, and evaluation of organ dysfunction/damage. Laboratory medicine plays a central role in the diagnosis and management of systemic amyloidoses, through the quantification of the amyloidogenic precursor and evaluation of end-organ damage using biomarkers.

PubMed | Amyloid Research and Treatment Center
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Blood | Year: 2012

Monoclonal Ig light chains (LC) can be responsible for pathologic conditions in humans, as in systemic amyloid light amyloidosis. Protean clinical manifestations characterize this disorder with the most varied combination of symptoms generated by different degrees of diverse organ involvement. Kidney and heart are most frequently interested, with major heart involvement as the most relevant prognostic factor. The identification of the underlying mechanism involved in organ targeting is of major relevance for the pathobiology of this disorder. To this aim, we characterized the repertoire of variable region germline genes of LC preferentially targeting the heart and compared it with the repertoire of LC that do not in a case-control study. We found that the repertoires were highly restricted, showing preferential use of the same few germline genes but with a different frequency pattern. A single gene, IGVL1-44, was found associated with a 5-fold increase in the odds of dominant heart involvement (after adjusting for confounders in a multivariable logistic model). These results support an involvement of LC genetics in the determination of organ targeting. Study of the characteristics of IGVL1-44-LC with, and of the minority without, heart involvement might lead to identification of LC/tissue interactions.

PubMed | Amyloid Research and Treatment Center, University of Pavia, Irccs Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri and Medical Oncology Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Worm | Year: 2015

Abnormalities in protein folding are involved in many localized and systemic diseases, all of which are characterized by insoluble amyloid formation and deposition. In immunoglobulin light chain (LC) amyloidosis, the most frequent systemic form of amyloidosis, the amyloid involvement of the heart dictates the prognosis and the elucidation of the mechanism of heart targeting and toxicity is essential for designing and testing new effective treatments. To this end, the availability of an appropriate animal model is crucial. We recently described the use of C. elegans as an innovative experimental system to investigate in vivo the pathogenic effects of monoclonal LC. This idea stems from the knowledge that the worms pharynx is an ancestral heart with the additional ability to recognize stressor compounds. The feeding of worms with LC purified from patients suffering from cardiomyopathy, selectively and permanently impaired the pharyngeal function. This irreversible damage resulted in time, in a significant reduction in the lifespan of worms. We also reported that the ability of LC to generate reactive oxygen species was associated with their toxic effects and was counteracted by anti-oxidant compounds. This new nematode-based assay represents a promising model for elucidating the heart-specific toxicity of LC and for a rapid screening of new therapeutic strategies.

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