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San Diego, CA, United States

Roth J.D.,Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity | Year: 2013

Purpose of Review: This review focuses on recent advances in receptor signaling, neurobiology, and pharmacological interactions of amylin with nutritive status, as well as other metabolism-related regulatory signals. RECENT FINDINGS: Manipulation of components of the amylin receptor complex revealed important roles for the accessory proteins of amylin receptors in energy balance. In-vitro findings point to potential novel sites of action and postreceptor signaling pathways activated by amylin. Neurobiological studies elucidated how amylin activation of hindbrain neural circuitry modulates hypothalamic signaling and responsiveness to leptin. The notion of 'amylin resistance' was addressed in several models (drug or diet-induced hyper-amylinemia). Finally, progress in the design and delivery of amylinomimetics is briefly discussed. SUMMARY: Collectively, these mechanistic studies deepen our understanding of the role of endogenous amylin in the regulation of appetite and adiposity, and hopefully will help guide research efforts towards the development of more effective amylin-based therapies for metabolic diseases. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus that leverage the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor signaling pathway have been shown to reduce rates of hyperglycemia and have beneficial effects on body weight. This post hoc analysis compared the effects of 2 GLP-1 receptor- based therapies, exenatide once weekly (EQW), a GLP-1 receptor agonist, and sitagliptin (sita), a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on glucose control across the range of baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels specified in the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology treatment algorithm. Data from patients treated with either EQW or sita for 26 weeks in 2 randomized, double-blind, comparator-controlled clinical trials were pooled and analyzed. Glycemic endpoints and cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated in subgroups and the overall population. Analysis included 737 patients on background therapies of diet and exercise and/or metformin. While both agents reduced HbA1c and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels from baseline, significantly greater reductions in HbA1c and FBG levels occurred with EQW compared with sita across all baseline HbA1c level strata, and significantly more patients in the EQW group achieved goal HbA1c levels compared with the sita group. Patients treated with EQW also experienced significantly greater reductions in body weight and cholesterol levels compared with patients treated with sita. The incidences of the most common adverse events of nausea and diarrhea were higher in the EQW group compared with the sita group, and incidences of these adverse events decreased over time. Both groups experienced a low incidence of minor hypoglycemic events. Significantly greater improvements in HbA1c and FBG levels were observed in EQW- compared with sita-treated patients across all baseline HbA1c level strata. Additionally, greater reductions in body weight and some cardiovascular risk factors were observed with EQW treatment compared with sita treatment. Both EQW and sita were generally well tolerated; sita-treated patients experienced fewer adverse events than EQW-treated patients. Trial registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00637273, NCT00676338.

Exenatide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist demonstrated to improve glycemic control with low hypoglycemia risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Diabetes Therapy Utilization: Researching Changes in A1C, Weight, and Other Factors Through Intervention With Exenatide Once Weekly (DURATION) program comprised 6 randomized, comparator-controlled, 24- to 30-week trials of exenatide once weekly (EQW), an extended-release formulation. This post hoc analysis pooled data from patients taking EQW across 6 trials to assess efficacy and safety in a large, varied patient population. The intent-to-treat (ITT) population contained 1379 patients (baseline mean ± standard deviation glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] levels of 8.4% ± 1.1%) who were treated with EQW over the course of 24 to 30 weeks. Changes from baseline in efficacy parameters for the ITT population and a completer population (1195 patients with ≥ 22 weeks of exposure) were evaluated. The ITT population experienced significant reductions from baseline (least-squares mean [95% CI]) in HbA1c levels (-1.4% [-1.5% to -1.4%]), fasting blood glucose levels (-36 mg/dL [-38.4 mg/dL to -33.8 mg/dL]), and body weight (-2.5 kg [-2.8 kg to -2.3 kg]) after 24 to 30 weeks of EQW treatment. Reductions in HbA1c and fasting blood glucose levels were observed across baseline HbA1c level strata; patients with higher baseline HbA1c levels experienced greater reductions. Treatment with EQW was associated with modest, significant reductions in blood pressure (systolic blood pressure, -2.8 mm Hg [-3.5 mm Hg to -2.1 mm Hg]; diastolic blood pressure, -0.8 mm Hg [-1.2 mm Hg to -0.4 mm Hg]), and fasting lipid levels (total cholesterol, -6.5 mg/dL [-8.2 mg/dL to -4.7 mg/dL]; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, -3.9 mg/dL [5.3 mg/dL to -2.5 mg/dL]; and triglyceride [geometric least-squares mean percent change (95% CI)], -6% [-8% to -4%] levels). Similar reductions were observed in the completer population. Exenatide once weekly was generally well tolerated. Transient, mild-to-moderate gastrointestinal treatment-emergent adverse events and injection-site treatment-emergent adverse events were reported most frequently, but were seldom treatment limiting. No major hypoglycemic events were observed; minor hypoglycemic events occurred infrequently in patients not using a sulfonylurea. This post hoc analysis of > 1300 patients demonstrated that EQW was associated with significant reductions in HbA1c levels, body weight, blood pressure, and fasting lipid levels, with minimal hypoglycemia risk. Consistent with established safety profiles, EQW therapy was generally well tolerated. Trial registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00308139, NCT00637273, NCT00641056, NCT00676338, NCT00877890, NCT01029886.

Eli Lilly, Company and Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Date: 2015-06-02

The disclosure provides, among other things, the use of GLP-1 receptor agonist compounds to treat obstructive sleep apnea. The GLP-1 receptor agonist compounds may be exendins, exendin analogs, GLP-1 (7-37), GLP-1 (7-37) analogs (e.g., GLP-1 (7-36)-NH

Astrazeneca and Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Date: 2014-03-03

The present invention relates generally to novel, selectable hybrid polypeptides useful as agents for the treatment and prevention of metabolic diseases and disorders which can be alleviated by control plasma glucose levels, insulin levels, and/or insulin secretion, such as diabetes and diabetes-related conditions. Such conditions and disorders include, but are not limited to, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, eating disorders, insulin-resistance, obesity, and diabetes mellitus of any kind, including type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

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