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Ada, MI, United States

Sensory measurement underlies sensory science. Sensory analysis and decision-making heavily depend on the quality of sensory data, which is determined by the performance of trained sensory panels and panelists. Various methods have been proposed for monitoring and assessing the performance. A weakness of the currently used methods is lack of a unified framework for various criteria and a variety of experiments with different types of data. This paper proposes to use accuracy, validity and reliability as general terminologies to describe sensory measurement and to apply the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a framework for monitoring and assessing performance. ICC can measure both similarity among panelists and sensitivity of panels and panelists. Hence, ICC can handle the problems of both reliability and validity. ICC can be obtained from different types of data for diverse experiments. This paper provides the equations and R and S-Plus functions for estimations of ICCs from continuous data (ratings), multivariate continuous data, ordinal data, ranking data, binary-choice data, multiple-choice data and forced-choice data. Confidence intervals, variances of the estimators, comparison with a fixed value and difference and similarity tests for multiple ICCs are also provided. The relationship between Cronbach's coefficient alpha and ICC is discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Bi J.,Sensometrics Research and Service | Kuesten C.,Amway
Journal of Sensory Studies

In a recent paper in the sensory literature, the method of "M+N" with larger M and N is proposed to be a new kind of sensory discrimination method. Fisher's exact test is used for the method for discrimination testing. The current article focuses on sensory measurements for the method. Five indices for sensory measurements and effect-sizes are derived, estimated, and proposed. The indices include log odds ratio, R-index, Thurstonian discriminal distance δ (or d′), Cohen's Δ (or d) and Gini-index. Variances of the estimators of the indices are also produced. With the proposed indices, the method of "M+N" with larger M and N can be connected to and compared with the conventional sensory discrimination methods based on common sensory measurements. Practical Applications: The method of "M+N" with larger M and N can be used for both sensory discrimination tests and measurements. The method is particularly suitable for a range of nonfatiguing discrimination tasks, e.g., visual inspection and, to a certain extent, manual inspection. With the indices proposed in this article, sensory effects can be measured for the new method. Built-in R programs are used in the article for the analysis. R codes for estimations of the indices and their variances for the method are developed and provided. Tables for two important sensory indices, R-index and d′, corresponding to the observed odds ratio are presented and used in the article. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Bi J.,Sensometrics Research and Service | Kuesten C.,Amway
Food Quality and Preference

The Lady Tasting Tea is a famous real story in the history of development of statistics, related to R.A. Fisher, one of the greatest statisticians and founders of modern statistics. The main learning and insight offered by this paper from revisiting the story are that the methodology of conventional sensory difference tests can be and should be expanded to cover the '. M+. N' method with larger M and N. Unlike the conventional discrimination tests, which use multiple sets of '. M+. N' samples with small M and N based on a binomial model, the '. M+. N' tests with larger M and N can reach a statistical significance in a single trial using only one set of '. M+. N' samples based on a hypergeometric distribution in Fisher's exact test. This paper explores the applications of the new methods particularly in assessing performance of trained sensory panels and panelists. The connection of the odds ratio or common odds ratio with Cohen's standardized mean difference d is also discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Yeo K.M.,Amway | Frank Mayadas A.,Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
Journal of Asynchronous Learning Network

The Sloan Pillars have set the standard for university-wide online learning program assessment for more than a dozen years. In this paper, the authors propose the extension of the Pillars to corporate e-learning, offering an alternative to traditional enterprise learning assessments. Claiming that conventional methods stress individual courses or programs, rather than encompassing a company's learning ecology, a new corporate version of Sloan Pillars is proposed. The authors claim that their holistic approach-assessing employee access, learning and cost effectiveness, and learner and management satisfaction-provides companies with the tools they need to assess the effectiveness of company learning efforts overall. Source

Kuesten C.,Amway | Chopra P.,Amway | Bi J.,Sensometrics Research and Service | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Service
Food Quality and Preference

Phytonutrient supplements are consumed to increase dietary consumption of nutrients. This research addresses the opportunities and the challenges for this product category to better understand consumer choice and consumption in combination with hedonic (liking), sensory, psychographic and emotion measures. One objective of this exploratory study is to use Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to measure consumer (n=303) emotions associated with 9 different aromas of phytonutrient supplements.A key issue facing emotion research in product development is the proper balance of positive and negative emotions. Traditional clinical emotion questionnaires emphasize negative emotions. Newer emotion questionnaires for commercial use emphasize positive emotions, both in the food and perfume categories. What is the proper balance of positive and negative emotions for a broad range of consumer products? Desmet and Schifferstein (2008) noted the "hedonic asymmetry", or positive bias, which exists for many product emotions. In contrast to the clinical questionnaires which emphasize negative emotions, and the newer commercial questionnaires which emphasize positive emotions, the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) has equal numbers of positive and negative emotions in both the regular and shorter forms.This study supports that the PANAS scales are valid in measurement of consumer emotions evoked by the aromas of phytonutrient supplements. The PANAS scale with 20-items and the short PANAS scale with 10-items are largely consistent in the results. Different phytonutrient product aromas were discriminated on their PANAS emotional profiles, and on both positive (PA) and negative (NA) dimensions. Results suggest that the hedonic, sensory, and emotional attributes represent different dimensions in consumer choice and consumption behaviors. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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