Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development AIGHD

Amsterdam, Netherlands

Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development AIGHD

Amsterdam, Netherlands
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Ondoa P.,Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development AIGHD | Gautam R.,University of Liverpool | Rusine J.,INTERACT Program | Rusine J.,National Reference Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Genital viral load (GVL) is the main determinant of sexual transmission of human immunedeficiency virus (HIV). The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on local cervico-vaginal immunological factors associated with GVL is poorly described. We aimed to identify the risk factors of detectable GVL, and the impact of ART on HIV genital shedding and its correlates in a cohort of HIV-infected women, attending HIV care in Kigali, Rwanda. Materials and Methods All participants were evaluated for GVL, plasma viral load (PVL), CD4 count, various sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) at baseline and at month 12. Genital concentration of 19 cytokines and mRNA expression of APOBEC3G and BST2, two host HIV restriction factors, were evaluated at baseline in all participants. Cytokine levels were re-assessed at month 12 only in participants eligible for ART at baseline. Risk factors of GVL 40copies/mL at baseline and month 12 were assessed using logistic regression. Effect of 12-month ART on various local and systemic immunological parameters was examined using a paired t-test and McNemar as appropriate. Results 96 of the 247 women enrolled in the study were eligible for ART. After 12 months of ART, PVL and GVL decreased to undetectable level in respectively 74 and 88% of treated participants. ART did not affect cytokine levels. HIV genital shedding occurred only when PVL was detectable. At baseline, GVL was independently associated with IL-1β after controlling for PVL, age and N. gonorrhea infection (95% CI 1.32-2.15) and at month 12 with MIP-1β (95% CI 0.96-21.32) after controlling for baseline GVL, PVL and month 12 IL-8. Conclusion Suppressive ART does not necessarily reduce genital level of immune activation. Minimizing all conditions favoring genital inflammation, including active detection and treatment of STIs, might reduce the risk of HIV transmission as supplement to the provision of potent ART. © 2015 Ondoa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Rusine J.,Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development AIGHD | Rusine J.,National Reference Laboratory | Ondoa P.,Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development AIGHD | Asiimwe-Kateera B.,INTERACT Program | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Data on prevalence and incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Rwanda are scarce.Methods:HBV status was assessed at baseline and Month 12, and anti-HCV antibodies at baseline, in a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients in Kigali, Rwanda: 104 men and 114 women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) at baseline, and 200 women not yet eligible for ART.Results:Baseline prevalence of active HBV infection (HBsAg positive), past or occult HBV infection (anti-HBc positive and HBsAg negative) and anti-HCV was 5.2%, 42.9%, and 5.7%, respectively. The active HBV incidence rate was 4.2/1,000 person years (PY). In a multivariable logistic regression model using baseline data, participants with WHO stage 3 or 4 HIV disease were 4.19 times (95% CI 1.21-14.47) more likely to have active HBV infection, and older patients were more likely to have evidence of past exposure to HBV (aRR 1.03 per year; 95%CI 1.01-1.06). Older age was also positively associated with having anti-HCV antibodies (aOR 1.09; 95%CI 1.04-1.14) while having a higher baseline HIV viral load was negatively associated with HCV (aOR 0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). The median CD4 increase during the first 12 months of ART was lower for those with active HBV infection or anti-HCV at baseline. Almost all participants (88%) with active HBV infection who were on ART were receiving lamivudine monotherapy for HBV.Conclusion:HBV and HCV are common in HIV-infected patients in Rwanda. Regular HBsAg screening is needed to ensure that HIV-HBV co-infected patients receive an HBV-active ART regimen, and the prevalence of occult HBV infection should be determined. Improved access to HBV vaccination is recommended. Active HCV prevalence and incidence should be investigated further to determine whether HCV RNA PCR testing should be introduced in Rwanda. © 2013 Rusine et al.


PubMed | Amsterdam, University of Liverpool, National Reference Laboratory, Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development AIGHD and Project San Francisco
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Genital viral load (GVL) is the main determinant of sexual transmission of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on local cervico-vaginal immunological factors associated with GVL is poorly described. We aimed to identify the risk factors of detectable GVL, and the impact of ART on HIV genital shedding and its correlates in a cohort of HIV-infected women, attending HIV care in Kigali, Rwanda.All participants were evaluated for GVL, plasma viral load (PVL), CD4 count, various sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) at baseline and at month 12. Genital concentration of 19 cytokines and mRNA expression of APOBEC3G and BST2, two host HIV restriction factors, were evaluated at baseline in all participants. Cytokine levels were re-assessed at month 12 only in participants eligible for ART at baseline. Risk factors of GVL 40 copies/mL at baseline and month 12 were assessed using logistic regression. Effect of 12-month ART on various local and systemic immunological parameters was examined using a paired t-test and McNemar as appropriate.96 of the 247 women enrolled in the study were eligible for ART. After 12 months of ART, PVL and GVL decreased to undetectable level in respectively 74 and 88% of treated participants. ART did not affect cytokine levels. HIV genital shedding occurred only when PVL was detectable. At baseline, GVL was independently associated with IL-1 after controlling for PVL, age and N. gonorrhea infection (95% CI 1.32-2.15) and at month 12 with MIP-1 (95% CI 0.96-21.32) after controlling for baseline GVL, PVL and month 12 IL-8.Suppressive ART does not necessarily reduce genital level of immune activation. Minimizing all conditions favoring genital inflammation, including active detection and treatment of STIs, might reduce the risk of HIV transmission as supplement to the provision of potent ART.


Zeh C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Inzaule S.C.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Inzaule S.C.,Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development AIGHD | Ondoa P.,Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development AIGHD | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Objective: To identify unique characteristics of recent versus established HIV infections and describe sexual transmission networks, we characterized circulating HIV-1 strains from two randomly selected populations of ART-naïve participants in rural western Kenya. Methods: Recent HIV infections were identified by the HIV-1 subtype B, E and D, immunoglobulin G capture immunoassay (IgG BED-CEIA) and BioRad avidity assays. Genotypic and phylogenetic analyses were performed on the pol gene to identify transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations, characterize HIV subtypes and potential transmission clusters. Factors associated with recent infection and clustering were assessed by logistic regression. Results Of the 320 specimens, 40 (12.5%) were concordantly identified by the two assays as recent infections. Factors independently associated with being recently infected were age ≥19 years (P = 0.001) and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the past six months (P = 0.004). HIV subtype distribution differed in recently versus chronically infected participants, with subtype A observed among 53% recent vs. 68% chronic infections (p = 0.04) and subtype D among 26% recent vs. 12% chronic infections (p = 0.012). Overall, the prevalence of primary drug resistance was 1.16%. Of the 258 sequences, 11.2%were in monophyletic clusters of between 2-4 individuals. In multivariate analysis factors associated with clustering included having recent HIV infection P = 0.043 and being from Gem region P = 0.002. Conclusions: Recent HIV-1 infection was more frequent among 13-19 year olds compared with older age groups, underscoring the ongoing risk and susceptibility of younger persons for acquiring HIV infection. Our findings also provide evidence of sexual networks. The association of recent infections with clustering suggests that early infectionsmay be contributing significant proportions of onward transmission highlighting the need for early diagnosis and treatment as prevention for ongoing prevention. Larger studies are needed to better understand the structure of these networks and subsequently implement and evaluate targeted interventions. © This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.


Kayigamba F.R.,INTERACT | Bakker M.I.,Royal Tropical Institute | Fikse H.,Royal Tropical Institute | Mugisha V.,University of Kigali | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Introduction: Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased greatly in sub-Saharan Africa. However many patients do not enrol timely into HIV care and treatment after HIV diagnosis. We studied enrolment into care and treatment and determinants of non-enrolment in Rwanda. Methods: Data were obtained from routine clinic registers from eight health facilities in Rwanda on patients who were diagnosed with HIV at the antenatal care, voluntary counselling-and-testing, outpatient or tuberculosis departments between March and May 2009. The proportion of patients enrolled into HIV care and treatment was calculated as the number of HIV infected patients registered in ART clinics for follow-up care and treatment within 90 days of HIV diagnosis divided by the total number of persons diagnosed with HIV in the study period. Results: Out of 482 patients diagnosed with HIV in the study period, 339 (70%) were females, and the median age was 29 years (interquartile range [IQR] 24-37). 201 (42%) enrolled into care and treatment within 90 days of HIV diagnosis. The median time between testing and enrolment was six days (IQR 2-14). Enrolment in care and treatment was not significantly associated with age, sex, or department of testing, but was associated with study site. None of those enrolled were in WHO stage 4. The median CD4 cell count among adult patients was 387 cells/mm3 (IQR: 242-533 cells/mm3); 81 of 170 adult patients (48%) were eligible to start ART (CD4 count<350 cells/mm3 or WHO stage 4). Among those eligible, 45 (56%) started treatment within 90 days of HIV diagnosis. Conclusion: Less than 50% of diagnosed HIV patients from eight Rwandan health facilities had enrolled into care and treatment within 90 days of diagnosis. Improving linkage to care and treatment after HIV diagnosis is needed to harness the full potential of ART. © 2012 Kayigamba et al.


Kayigamba F.R.,INTERACT | Bakker M.I.,Royal Tropical Institute | Lammers J.,Academic Medical Center | Mugisha V.,University of Kigali | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Introduction: Routine provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) may increase HIV testing rates, but whether PITC is acceptable to health facility (HF) attendees is unclear. In the course of a PITC intervention study in Rwanda, we assessed the acceptability of PITC, reasons for being or not being tested and factors associated with HIV testing. Methods: Attendees were systematically interviewed in March 2009 as they left the HF, regarding knowledge and acceptability of PITC, history of testing and reasons for being tested or not. Subsequently, PITC was introduced in 6 of the 8 HFs and a second round of interviews was conducted. Independent factors associated with testing were analysed using logistic regression. Randomly selected health care workers (HCWs) were also interviewed. Results: 1772 attendees were interviewed. Over 95% agreed with the PITC policy, both prior to and after implementation of PITC policy. The most common reasons for testing were the desire to know one's HIV status and having been offered an HIV test by an HCW. The most frequent reasons for not being tested were known HIV status and test not being offered. In multivariable analysis, PITC, age 15 years, and not having been previously tested were factors significantly associated with testing. Although workload was increased by PITC, HIV testing rates increased and HCWs overwhelmingly supported the policy. Conclusion: Among attendees and HCWs in Rwandan clinics, the acceptability of PITC was very high. PITC appeared to increase testing rates and may be helpful in prevention and early access to treatment.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Center for Global Health, Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development AIGHD and Kenya Medical Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

To identify unique characteristics of recent versus established HIV infections and describe sexual transmission networks, we characterized circulating HIV-1 strains from two randomly selected populations of ART-nave participants in rural western Kenya.Recent HIV infections were identified by the HIV-1 subtype B, E and D, immunoglobulin G capture immunoassay (IgG BED-CEIA) and BioRad avidity assays. Genotypic and phylogenetic analyses were performed on the pol gene to identify transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations, characterize HIV subtypes and potential transmission clusters. Factors associated with recent infection and clustering were assessed by logistic regression.Of the 320 specimens, 40 (12.5%) were concordantly identified by the two assays as recent infections. Factors independently associated with being recently infected were age 19 years (P = 0.001) and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the past six months (P = 0.004). HIV subtype distribution differed in recently versus chronically infected participants, with subtype A observed among 53% recent vs. 68% chronic infections (p = 0.04) and subtype D among 26% recent vs. 12% chronic infections (p = 0.012). Overall, the prevalence of primary drug resistance was 1.16%. Of the 258 sequences, 11.2% were in monophyletic clusters of between 2-4 individuals. In multivariate analysis factors associated with clustering included having recent HIV infection P = 0.043 and being from Gem region P = 0.002.Recent HIV-1 infection was more frequent among 13-19 year olds compared with older age groups, underscoring the ongoing risk and susceptibility of younger persons for acquiring HIV infection. Our findings also provide evidence of sexual networks. The association of recent infections with clustering suggests that early infections may be contributing significant proportions of onward transmission highlighting the need for early diagnosis and treatment as prevention for ongoing prevention. Larger studies are needed to better understand the structure of these networks and subsequently implement and evaluate targeted interventions.


Franse C.B.,Royal Tropical Institute | Kayigamba F.R.,INTERACT | Bakker M.I.,Royal Tropical Institute | Mugisha V.,University of Kigali | And 4 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2016

HIV testing and counselling forms the gateway to the HIV care and treatment continuum. Therefore, the World Health Organization recommends provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic. Few studies have investigated linkage-to-HIV-care among out-patients after PITC. Our objective was to study timely linkage-to-HIV-care in six Rwandan health facilities (HFs) before and after the introduction of PITC in the out-patient departments (OPDs). Information from patients diagnosed with HIV was abstracted from voluntary counselling and testing, OPD and laboratory registers of six Rwandan HFs during three-month periods before (March–May 2009) and after (December 2009–February 2010) the introduction of PITC in the OPDs of these facilities. Information on patients’ subsequent linkage-to-pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) care and ART was abstracted from ART clinic registers of each HF. To triangulate the findings from HF routine, a survey was held among patients to assess reasons for non-enrolment. Of 635 patients with an HIV diagnosis, 232 (36.5%) enrolled at the ART clinic within 90 days of diagnosis. Enrolment among out-patients decreased after the introduction of PITC (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–4.2; p = .051). Survey findings showed that retesting for HIV among patients already diagnosed and enrolled into care was not uncommon. Patients reported non-acceptance of disease status, stigma and problems with healthcare services as main barriers for enrolment. Timely linkage-to-HIV-care was suboptimal in this Rwandan study before and after the introduction of PITC; the introduction of PITC in the OPD may have had a negative impact on linkage-to-HIV-care. Healthier patients tested through PITC might be less ready to engage in HIV care. Fear of HIV stigma and mistrust of test results appear to be at the root of these problems. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Kayigamba F.R.,INTERACT | Van Santen D.,Royal Tropical Institute KIT | Van Santen D.,Public Health Service of Amsterdam GGD | Bakker M.I.,Royal Tropical Institute KIT | And 8 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) is promoted as a means to increase HIV case finding. We assessed the effectiveness of PITC to increase HIV testing rate and HIV case finding among outpatients in Rwandan health facilities (HF). Methods: PITC was introduced in six HFs in 2009-2010. HIV testing rate and case finding were compared between phase 1 (pre-PITC) and phase 3 (PITC period) for outpatient-department (OPD) attendees only, and for OPD and voluntary counseling & testing (VCT) departments combined. Results: Out of 26,367 adult OPD attendees in phase 1, 4.7% were tested and out of 29,864 attendees in phase 3, 17.0% were tested (p < 0.001). The proportion of HIV cases diagnosed was 0.25% (67/26,367) in phase 1 and 0.46% (136/29864) in phase 3 (p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, both testing rate and case finding were significantly higher in phase 3 for OPD attendees. In phase 1 most of the HIV testing was done in VCT departments rather than at the OPD (78.6% vs 21.4% respectively); in phase 3 this was reversed (40.0% vs 60.0%; p < 0.001). In a combined analysis of VCT and OPD attendees, testing rate increased from 18.7% in phase 1 to 25.4% in phase 3, but case finding did not increase. In multivariable analysis, testing rate was significantly higher in phase 3 (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.60-1.73), but case finding remained stable (OR 1.09; 95% CI 0.93-1.27). Conclusion: PITC led to a shift of HIV testing from VCT department to the OPD, a higher testing rate, but no additional HIV case finding. © 2016 Kayigamba et al.


PubMed | Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development AIGHD, INTERACT, University of Kigali, Royal Tropical Institute KIT and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC infectious diseases | Year: 2016

Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) is promoted as a means to increase HIV case finding. We assessed the effectiveness of PITC to increase HIV testing rate and HIV case finding among outpatients in Rwandan health facilities (HF).PITC was introduced in six HFs in 2009-2010. HIV testing rate and case finding were compared between phase 1 (pre-PITC) and phase 3 (PITC period) for outpatient-department (OPD) attendees only, and for OPD and voluntary counseling & testing (VCT) departments combined.Out of 26,367 adult OPD attendees in phase 1, 4.7% were tested and out of 29,864 attendees in phase 3, 17.0% were tested (p<0.001). The proportion of HIV cases diagnosed was 0.25% (67/26,367) in phase 1 and 0.46% (136/29864) in phase 3 (p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, both testing rate and case finding were significantly higher in phase 3 for OPD attendees. In phase 1 most of the HIV testing was done in VCT departments rather than at the OPD (78.6% vs 21.4% respectively); in phase 3 this was reversed (40.0% vs 60.0%; p<0.001). In a combined analysis of VCT and OPD attendees, testing rate increased from 18.7% in phase 1 to 25.4% in phase 3, but case finding did not increase. In multivariable analysis, testing rate was significantly higher in phase 3 (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.60-1.73), but case finding remained stable (OR 1.09; 95% CI 0.93-1.27).PITC led to a shift of HIV testing from VCT department to the OPD, a higher testing rate, but no additional HIV case finding.

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