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Almaslow A.,National University of Malaysia | Ratnam C.T.,Malaysian Nuclear Agency | Ghazali M.J.,National University of Malaysia | Talib R.J.,AMREC | Azhari C.H.,National University of Malaysia
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2013

Semimetallic friction composites (SMFCs) consisting of epoxidized natural rubber (50 mol% epoxidation, ENR 50), alumina nanoparticles, steel wool, graphite, and benzoxazine were prepared via melt mixing using a Haake internal mixer at 90 C and 60 rpm rotor speed. The composites were vulcanized using sulfur and electron-beam (EB) crosslinking systems. The SMFC samples were then subjected to friction, hardness, porosity, and density tests to determine their friction and wear properties. The morphological changes in the samples were also observed under a scanning electron microscope. The friction and wear properties of SMFCs crosslinked via the EB irradiation and sulfur vulcanization systems were compared. The friction coefficients in normal and hot conditions, as well as the hardness and density of the irradiated SMFC, were higher than those of the sulfur-vulcanized samples at all applied doses. The porosity of the irradiated SMFC at 50, 100, and 150 kGy was higher than that of the sulfur-vulcanized samples; however, the irradiated SMFC exhibited a descending trend at 200 kGy. On the other hand, the specific wear rates of the irradiated samples were lower than those of the sulfur-vulcanized samples at all applied doses. The sample crosslinked via EB irradiation at 150 kGy exhibited the greater tribological property compared with the sulfur-vulcanized SMFC, as indicated by the higher friction coefficient (approximately 0.461) and lower wear rate achieved at 150 kGy irradiation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Almaslow A.,National University of Malaysia | Ratnam C.T.,Malaysian Nuclear Agency | Ghazali M.J.,National University of Malaysia | Talib R.J.,AMREC | Azhari C.H.,National University of Malaysia
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

Semi-metallic friction composites (SMFC) consist of epoxidised natural rubber with 50 mol % epoxidation (ENR50), alumina nanoparticle, steel wool, graphite and benzoxazine were prepared by melt mixing using Haake internal mixer at 90°C and 60 rpm rotor speed. The composites were vulcanized using different crosslinking systems, namely, sulfur and electron beam (EB) crosslinking. The samples were subjected for friction test in order to determine friction and wear properties of SMFC. The friction-wear properties of the SMFC crosslinked by electron beam irradiation and sulfur vulcanization system were compared. The friction coefficient in normal and hot condition of irradiated SMFC were higher than those of sulphur vulcanized samples at all applied doses. On the other hand the specific wear rates of irradiated samples were lower than the sulfur vulcanized samples at all applied doses. The sample crosslinked by EB irradiation at 150 kGy dose found to exhibit the best tribological property, as evident from the higher friction coefficient (about 0.461) and lower wear achieved at 150 kGy irradiation as compared to sulphur vulcanization of the SMFC. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Omar M.A.,AMREC | Abdullah N.,AMREC | Mohd Zainon N.,AMREC | Roslani N.,AMREC | Zulkifly A.H.,International Islamic University Malaysia
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

This paper presents the attempt to manufacture metallic implant using medical grade 316L stainless steel alloy powder by MIM process. The powder with the median particle size of 15 μm and a binder consisting of palm stearin and poly ethylene were mixed at 160°C using a sigmablade mixer for one hour to prepare the feedstock of the test bar. The rheological properties of the feedstock was tested using capillary rheometer. The test bar was injection moulded using vertical injection moulding machine with the nozzle temperature of 200°C. Prior to sintering, the specimens were debound using a combination of solvent extraction and thermal pyrolysis method. The specimens were then sintered under vacuum at the temperature between 1300oC to 1360oC. The properties of the sintered bar such as physical appearance and densities were presented and discussed. The biocompatibility including toxicity properties of the implant also been presented. The results showed that physical and mechanical properties of the sintered sample complied with the international standard © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Talib R.J.,AMREC | Othman E.,AMREC | Kasiran R.,National Center for Machinery and Tooling Technology
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

Friction materials are complex mix of fibres, modifiers, additives, fillers and a binder resin which holds them together and are composed of between 5 and 20 elements in the composition. Each element has its own function and changing any element or its weight percentage will change the friction material properties. Besides, there is no rule of thumb whereupon the friction and wear performance can be predicted based on physical and mechanical properties. Therefore, each developed formulation needs to be subjected to dynamometer test for screening purpose prior to on-vehicle test to reduce development cost and. In this study, four formulations developed for passenger cars through powder metallurgy technique were subjected to dynamometer tests in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers standard SAE 2552, dynamometer global brake effectiveness test. Test results show that sample S2 and S8 comply with the minimum requirement under all test segments and hence prototype sample could be prepared for further evaluation by performing on the road performance test. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Azmi B.M.,Petronas University of Technology | Hasanaly S.M.,AMREC | Zakaria M.,Petronas University of Technology
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

Mesoporous SnP 2O 7 was synthesized via a surfactant templating method where an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate was used. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates presence of mesostructure when the precursors were calcined at 200, 300 and 400°C. Cyclic voltammetry tests carried out within 0-2.0 V (vs. Li/Li +) indicated that irreversible reduction of tin phosphate to form lithium phosphate phases and metallic tin occurred around 1.10 V and 0.69 V whereas the reversible alloying and de-alloying reaction involving lithium with tin occurred at 0.19 V and 0.52 V, respectively. Galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests carried out within 0-1.2V (vs. Li/Li +) showed that the mesoporous tin phosphate calcined at 400°C exhibited a reversible discharge capacity of 738 mAh/g in the second cycle and upon reaching the tenth cycle, it retained a discharge capacity of 461 mAh/g. The relatively high capacity obtained for this anode was attributed to the mesoporous framework which provided larger surface area for reaction with lithium and minimized effect of volume changes experienced by the anode during repeated charging and discharging cycling. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Hasanaly S.M.,AMREC
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

Tin oxide anode materials used in lithium-ion cells experience large volume changes during charging and discharging which cause substantial losses in capacity. In this work, the tin oxide-graphite composite is proposed as an alternative anode material to overcome this problem. The composite was synthesised from a solution of tin chloride dihydrate and graphite powders with citric acid as the chelating agent. In this sol-gel method, a solid phase is formed through a chemical reaction in a liquid phase at moderate temperature. The technique offers several advantages compared to the solid state synthesis technique such as the ability to maintain the homogeneous mixture of precursors during synthesis and to produce small particles. The electrochemical behaviour of the anode material was investigated by means of galvanostatic charge discharge technique. An initial reversible capacity of 748 mAh/g is obtained and nearly 600 mAh/g was retained upon the reaching the fifth cycle. This study shows that the presence of graphite is able to minimise the agglomeration of tin particles that causes large volume changes during cycling, thereby improving cyclability of the anode material. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Talib R.J.,AMREC | Ariff H.M.,AMREC | Fazira M.F.,AMREC
International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering | Year: 2011

Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN)-coated cutting tool inserts were subjected to turning of carbon steel at two cutting speeds (75 mm/min and 120 mm/min), whereas depth of cut and feed rate is kept constant at 0.5 mm and 0.06 mm/rev, respectively. The objective of this work is to investigate the micro structural changes on the flank of the insert and effect of cutting speed on the machining performance of the coated insert. Micro structural examinations revealed the following phenomenon during turning process; (i) two-way transfer of material on worn surfaces of the insert and work piece, (ii) formation of mechanically alloying transferred material, (iii) plastic flow of coated material, and (iv) abrasion wear mechanism. Test results also show that the flank wear reduced as the cutting speed increased due to good oxidation resistance properties of TiAlN coating layer at high temperatures generated during turning process.

Talib R.J.,University Technology of MARA | Zaharah A.M.,AMREC | Selamat M.A.,AMREC | Mahaidin A.A.,AMREC | Fazira M.F.,AMREC
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2013

Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coating is widely applied in industry to improve the wear resistance of surfaces, such as for cutting tools, mould and dies, aerospace components and machine elements. It has high hardness with superior chemical and thermal stability. In this work, the turning performance was conducted at cutting speed of 60 mm/min, feed rate of 0.06 mm/rev and 1.0 mm depth of cut, on carbon steel workpiece. The wear behavior of TiCN-coated WC and uncoated WC cutting inserts were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. The tribological characteristic of the sample was evaluated on a pin-on-disc tribometer. TiCN-coated cutting tool inserts were subjected to turning of hardened carbon steel at 50 mm/min, depth of cut at 0.5 mm and feed rate at 0.06 mm/rev under dry turning condition. It was observed that TiCN coating thin film deposited on cutting tools have reduced the friction coefficient, increased microhardness and subsequently improved cutting tool life as compared to uncoated cutting tool inserts. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier.

Sahab A.R.M.,AMREC | Saad N.H.,University of Selangor | Kasolang S.,University of Selangor | Saedon J.,University of Selangor
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2012

Alumina-titania coatings produced by plasma spray processes are being developed for a wide variety of applications that require resistance to wear, erosion, cracking and spallation. Consideration of parameters setting will develop reliable coatings with high performance properties for demanding coating application. Al2O3 3%wt TiO2 coating was produced onto metal substrate using Praxair Plasma Spray System with SG-100 Gun. This paper discusses the experimental and testing performance analysis of the coating which prepared based on three varied process parameters (current, powder flow rate and stand-off-distance). With the varied coating parameters, test results showed that increasing current from 550A to 650A and powder flow rate from 22.5g/min to 26 g/min increased the performance of mechanical properties of coating (adhesion strength & hardness) and gave the lowest friction coefficient value (i.e. best wear resistance) of coating. Increasing stand-off-distance from 75mm to 90mm also increased hardness performance and provided the lowest friction coefficient value of coating. However increasing stand-off-distance has decreased adhesion strength at setting powder flow rate of 26g/min and 650A current. The behavior of such parameters setting significantly influenced the production of optimum Al2O3 3%wt TiO2 coating onto metal substrate. © 2012 The Authors.

Md Jamil F.,AMREC | Md Jamil F.,National Defence University of Malaysia | Sulaiman A.M.,AMREC | Ibrahim S.M.,AMREC | And 2 more authors.
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2016

Effect of glucose loading on the synthesis mesoporous carbon had been studied using hard template method where mesoporous silica SBA-15 was used as a template. To obtain a large pore of mesoporous carbon sample, a large pore of silica template was used. A series of mesoporous carbon sample was synthesized by loading different amounts of glucose (2.5g, 5.0g and 10.0g) as a carbon precursor to ensure that the template was fully impregnated with precursor. After treatment process, the surface area of carbon samples were measured with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and it shows that higher amount of glucose gives higher surface area due to the large pore of the template used. The samples then were tested with cyclic voltammetry technique at different scan rates (10, 20, 30 and 50 mVs-1) in 6M KOH electrolyte. It reveals that higher surface area samples show a higher specific capacitance with 119 F/g at slow scan rate 10 mVs-1. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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