Napoli, Italy
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Gasparini P.,University of Naples Federico II | Manfredi G.,Amra Scarl | Manfredi G.,University of Naples Federico II | Zschau J.,German Research Center for Geosciences
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2011

Increasing vulnerability of metropolitan areas to earthquake and the very low probability level at which short term earthquake forecasting is possible make earthquake early warning methods (EEW) the main viable alternative for effective risk reduction in cities. Preventive actions, such as retrofitting and building and the diffusion of construction codes, are of course essential. They are not sufficient. A substantial proportion of the population in areas of higher earthquake hazard still reside in buildings that do not meet modern earthquake resistant standards, and cannot currently be strengthened in an economically viable manner. As demonstrated in Japan EEW has the potential of significantly contributing to reduce individual vulnerability of urban population to earthquakes. Future research on EEW should be focused on its implementation to protect lifelines, infrastructures and strategic buildings, and it should include training of administrators and people who can fully exploit the technological advantages offered by EEW systems. In particular it should foresee extensive cost-benefit analysis for each potential application, the identification and solution of legal problems (such as liability in the event of false or missed alarms), education and training, both for mitigation and response, as well as detection and processing within 1 s of the first seismic wave arrivals. Further objectives include the development of people-centred EEW, specialized IT and decision making support systems, integration of sensors, communications and decision making systems, integration into programs of eco-sustainable development, and integration with other EW systems (all hazard systems). © 2010.


Anita G.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Sandri L.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Marzocchi W.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Argnani A.,CNR Marine Science Institute | And 3 more authors.
Natural Hazards | Year: 2012

The general modular Bayesian procedure is applied to provide a probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for the Messina Strait Area (MSA), Italy. This is the first study in an Italian area where the potential tsunamigenic events caused by both submarine seismic sources (SSSs) and submarine mass failures (SMFs) are examined in a probabilistic assessment. The SSSs are localized on active faults in MSA as indicated by the instrumental data of the catalogue of the Italian seismicity; the SMFs are spatially identified using their propensity to failure in the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas on the basis of mean slope and mean depth, and using marine geology background knowledge. In both cases the associated probability of occurrence is provided. The run-ups were calculated at key sites that are main cities and/or important sites along the Eastern Sicily and the Southern Calabria coasts where tsunami events were recorded in the past. The posterior probability distribution combines the prior probability and the likelihood calculated in the MSA. The prior probability is based on the physical model of the tsunami process, and the likelihood is based on the historical data collected by the historical catalogues, background knowledge, and marine geological information. The posterior SSSs and SMFs tsunami probabilities are comparable and are combined to produce a final probability for a full PTHA in MSA. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Convertito V.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Maercklin N.,AMRA S.c.a.r.l | Sharma N.,University of Naples Federico II | Zollo A.,University of Naples Federico II
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America | Year: 2012

The growing installation of industrial facilities for subsurface exploration worldwide requires continuous refinements in understanding both the mechanisms by which seismicity is induced by field operations and the related seismic hazard. Particularly in proximity of densely populated areas, induced low-to-moderate magnitude seismicity characterized by high-frequency content can be clearly felt by the surrounding inhabitants and, in some cases, may produce damage. In this respect we propose a technique for time-dependent probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis to be used in geothermal fields as a monitoring tool for the effects of on-going field operations. The technique integrates the observed features of the seismicity induced by fluid injection and extraction with a local ground-motion prediction equation. The result of the analysis is the time-evolving probability of exceedance of peak ground acceleration (PGA), which can be compared with selected critical values to manage field operations. To evaluate the reliability of the proposed technique, we applied it to data collected in The Geysers geothermal field in northern California between 1 September 2007 and 15 November 2010 We show that the period considered the seismic hazard at The Geysers was variable in time and space, which is a consequence of the field operations and the variation of both seismicity rate and b-value.We conclude that, for the exposure period taken into account (i.e., two months), as a conservative limit, PGA values corresponding to the lowest probability of exceedance (e.g., 30%) must not be exceeded to ensure safe field operations. We suggest testing the proposed technique at other geothermal areas or in regions where seismicity is induced, for example, by hydrocarbon exploitation or carbon dioxide storage.


Grezio A.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Gasparini P.,AMRA Scarl | Gasparini P.,University of Naples Federico II | Marzocchi W.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | And 2 more authors.
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science | Year: 2012

We present a first detailed tsunami risk assessment for the city of Messina where one of the most destructive tsunami inundations of the last centuries occurred in 1908. In the tsunami hazard evaluation, probabilities are calculated through a new general modular Bayesian tool for Probability Tsunami Hazard Assessment. The estimation of losses of persons and buildings takes into account data collected directly or supplied by: (i) the Italian National Institute of Statistics that provides information on the population, on buildings and on many relevant social aspects; (ii) the Italian National Territory Agency that provides updated economic values of the buildings on the basis of their typology (residential, commercial, industrial) and location (streets); and (iii) the Train and Port Authorities. For human beings, a factor of time exposition is introduced and calculated in terms of hours per day in different places (private and public) and in terms of seasons, considering that some factors like the number of tourists can vary by one order of magnitude from January to August. Since the tsunami risk is a function of the run-up levels along the coast, a variable tsunami risk zone is defined as the area along the Messina coast where tsunami inundations may occur. © 2012 Author(s). CC Attribution 3.0 License.


Toscano G.,University of Naples Federico II | Colarieti M.L.,AMRA S.c.a.r.l. | Greco G.,AMRA S.c.a.r.l.
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2012

Propylene glycol (PG) is a main component in several commercial formulations of aircraft deicing fluids (ADF). Their use is a source of soil pollution along airport runways. Even though PG is biodegradable by soil bacteria, seasonal overloads can give rise to occasional groundwater contamination. A prevention strategy could be the enhancement of biodegradation rate in the unsaturated zone. The effect of addition of nutrients on the kinetics of PG degradation has been studied in soil slurries. In the absence of added nutrients, the aerobic removal kinetics is zero-order in PG concentration over the range 0.05-1 g/L. There is no biomass growth and PG degradation occurs by maintenance metabolism at constant rate depending on the initial concentration of PG-degraders. In the presence of ammonia as a nitrogen source, biomass exponential growth allows a faster aerobic PG degradation. Biomass growth can be detected by the apparent change in PG removal kinetics. Copyright © 2012, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Toscano G.,University of Naples Federico II | Colarieti M.L.,AMRA s.c.a.r.l | Anton A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Greco G.,AMRA s.c.a.r.l | Biro B.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Aircraft de-icing fluids (ADF) are a source of water and soil pollution in airport sites. Propylene glycol (PG) is a main component in several commercial formulations of ADFs. Even though PG is biodegradable in soil, seasonal overloads may result in occasional groundwater contamination. Feasibility studies for the biostimulation of PG degradation in soil have been carried out in soil slurries, soil microcosms and enrichment cultures with and without the addition of nutrients (N and P sources, oligoelements), alternative electron acceptors (nitrate, oxygen releasing compounds) and adsorbents (activated carbon). Soil samples have been taken from the contaminated area of Gardermoen Airport Oslo. Under aerobic conditions and in the absence of added nutrients, no or scarce biomass growth is observed and PG degradation occurs by maintenance metabolism at constant removal rate by the original population of PG degraders. With the addition of nutrient, biomass exponential growth enhances aerobic PG degradation also at low temperatures (4 ° C) that occur at the high season of snowmelt. Anaerobic PG degradation without added nutrients still proceeds at constant rate (i.e. no biomass growth) and gives rise to reduced fermentation product (propionic acid, reduced Fe and Mn, methane). The addition of nitrate does not promote biomass growth but allows full PG mineralization without reduced by-products. Further exploitation on the field is necessary to fully evaluate the effect of oxygen releasing compounds and adsorbents. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Grezio A.,AMRA Scarl | Grezio A.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Marzocchi W.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Sandri L.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | And 2 more authors.
Natural Hazards | Year: 2010

In this paper, a Bayesian procedure is implemented for the Probability Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA). The approach is general and modular incorporating all significant information relevant for the hazard assessment, such as theoretical and empirical background, analytical or numerical models, instrumental and historical data. The procedure provides the posterior probability distribution that integrates the prior probability distribution based on the physical knowledge of the process and the likelihood based on the historical data. Also, the method deals with aleatory and epistemic uncertainties incorporating in a formal way all sources of relevant uncertainty, from the tsunami generation process to the wave propagation and impact on the coasts. The modular structure of the procedure is flexible and easy to modify and/or update as long as new models and/or information are available. Finally, the procedure is applied to an hypothetical region, Neverland, to clarify the PTHA evaluation in a realistic case. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.


Menna C.,University of Naples Federico II | Caruso M.C.,AMRA S.c.a.r.l. | Asprone D.,University of Naples Federico II | Prota A.,University of Naples Federico II
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering | Year: 2016

Over the last decade, the rehabilitation/renovation of existing buildings has progressively attracted the attention of the scientific community and government institutions. While many studies report on mechanical and energy improvements of retrofitted/renovated existing structures, only few works deal with the environmental impacts of such interventions and related assessment approaches. The environmental impacts related to a structural retrofit option can be successfully quantified by means of life-cycle assessment (LCA) techniques. In particular, a proper cradle to gate (or grave) system boundary can be considered at the scale of the existing building which is subjected to the structural retrofit process, encompassing design requirements and alternative solutions. We propose a step-by-step methodological approach based on LCA which aims to evaluate the life cycle environmental impacts of typical retrofit processes applied to existing masonry structures. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Sharma N.,University of Naples Federico II | Convertito V.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Maercklin N.,AMRA S.c.a.r.l. | Zollo A.,University of Naples Federico II
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America | Year: 2013

The Geysers geothermal field in Northern California, which has been actively exploited since the 1960s, is the world's largest geothermal field. The continuous injection of fluids and the consequent stress perturbations induce seismicity that is clearly felt in the surrounding communities. In order to evaluate seismic hazard due to induced seismicity and the effects of seismicity rate level on the population and buildings in the area, reliable ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) must be developed. This paper introduces the first GMPEs specific for The Geysers area in terms of peak ground velocity (PGV), peak ground acceleration (PGA), and 5% damped spectral acceleration SA(T) at T = 0:2 s, 0.5 s, and 1.0 s. The adopted non-linear mixed-effect regression technique to derive the GMPE includes both fixed and random effects, and it permits to account for both inter-event and intra-event dependencies in the data. Site-specific effects are also estimated from the data and are corrected in the final ground-motion model. We used data from earthquakes recorded at 29 stations of the Berkeley-Geysers network during the period September 2007 through November 2010. The magnitude range is 1:3 < Mw < 3:3, whereas the hypocentral distances range between 0.5 km and 20 km. The comparison of our new GMPE for The Geysers with a standard model derived in a different tectonic context shows that our model is more robust when predictions have to be made for induced earthquakes in this geothermal area.


Iannaccone G.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Zollo A.,University of Naples Federico II | Elia L.,AMRA scarl | Convertito V.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | And 9 more authors.
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2010

The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet) is deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, November 23, Ms 6.9 Campania-Lucania earthquake. It is set up by 28 stations and covers an area of about 100 × 70 km2. Each site is equipped with a 1-g full-scale accelerometer and a short-period velocimeter. Due to its design characteristics, i. e., the wide dynamic range and the high density of stations, the ISNet network is mainly devoted to estimating in real-time the earthquake location and magnitude from low- to high- magnitude events, and to providing ground-motion parameters values so to get some insights about the ground shaking expected. Moreover, the availability of high-quality of data allows studying the source processes related to the seismogenetic structures in the area. The network layout, the data communication system and protocols and the main instrumental features are described in the paper. The data analysis is managed by Earthworm software package that also provides the earthquake location while custom software has been developed for real-time computation of the source parameters and shaking maps. Technical details about these procedures are given in the article. The data collected at the ISNet stations are available upon request. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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