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Hamburg, Germany

Bruder J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Bruder J.,Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology | Siewert K.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Siewert K.,Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

In polymyositis and inclusion body myositis, muscle fibers are surrounded and invaded by CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells expressing the αβ-T cell receptor (αβ-TCR) for antigen. In a rare variant of myositis, muscle fibers are similarly attacked by CD8-negative T cells expressing the γδ-TCR (γδ-T cell-mediated myositis). We investigated the antigen specificity of a human γδ-TCR previously identified in an autoimmune tissue lesion of γδ-T cell-mediated myositis. We show that this Vγ1.3Vδ2-TCR, termed M88, recognizes various proteins from different species. Several of these proteins belong to the translational apparatus, including some bacterial and human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AA-RS). Specifically, M88 recognizes histidyl-tRNA synthetase, an antigen known to be also targeted by autoantibodies called anti-Jo-1. The M88 target epitope is strictly conformational, independent of post-translational modification, and exposed on the surface of the respective antigenic protein. Extensive mutagenesis of the translation initiation factor-1 from Escherichia coli (EcIF1), which served as a paradigm antigen with known structure, showed that a short α-helical loop around amino acids 39 to 42 of EcIF1 is a major part of the M88 epitope. Mutagenesis of M88 showed that the complementarity determining regions 3 of both γδ-TCR chains contribute to antigen recognition. M88 is the only known example of a molecularly characterized γδ-TCR expressed by autoaggressive T cells in tissue. The observation that AA-RS are targeted by a γδ-T cell and by autoantibodies reveals an unexpected link between T cell and antibody responses in autoimmune myositis. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Thompson N.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Gesina E.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Scheinert P.,AmpTec GmbH | Bucher P.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | And 2 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2012

Pancreas development is initiated by the specification and expansion of a small group of endodermal cells. Several transcription factors are crucial for progenitor maintenance and expansion, but their interactions and the downstream targets mediating their activity are poorly understood. Among those factors, PTF1a, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor which controls pancreas exocrine cell differentiation, maintenance, and functionality, is also needed for the early specification of pancreas progenitors. We used RNA profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing to identify a set of targets in pancreas progenitors. We demonstrate that Mnx1, a gene that is absolutely required in pancreas progenitors, is a major direct target of PTF1a and is regulated by a distant enhancer element. Pdx1, Nkx6.1, and Onecut1 are also direct PTF1a targets whose expression is promoted by PTF1a. These proteins, most of which were previously shown to be necessary for pancreas bud maintenance or formation, form a transcription factor network that allows the maintenance of pancreas progenitors. In addition, we identify Bmp7, Nr5a2, RhoV, and P2rx1 as new targets of PTF1a in pancreas progenitors. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Schroder W.,University of Tubingen | Bernhardt J.,University of Greifswald | Marincola G.,University of Tubingen | Marincola G.,University of Wurzburg | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: It has been shown previously that aminocoumarin antibiotics such as novobiocin lead to immediate downregulation of recA expression and thereby inhibit the SOS response, mutation frequency and recombination capacity in Staphylococcus aureus. Aminocoumarins function by inhibiting the ATPase activity of DNA gyrase subunit B with a severe impact on DNA supercoiling.Results: Here, we have analysed the global impact of the DNA relaxing agent novobiocin on gene expression in S. aureus. Using a novobiocin-resistant mutant, it became evident that the change in recA expression is due to gyrase inhibition. Microarray analysis and northern blot hybridisation revealed that the expression levels of a distinct set of genes were increased (e.g., recF-gyrB-gyrA, the rib operon and the ure operon) or decreased (e.g., arlRS, recA, lukA, hlgC and fnbA) by novobiocin. The two-component ArlRS system was previously found to decrease the level of supercoiling in S. aureus. Thus, downregulation of arlRS might partially compensate for the relaxing effect of novobiocin. Global analysis and gene mapping of supercoiling-sensitive genes did not provide any indication that they are clustered in the genome. Promoter fusion assays confirmed that the responsiveness of a given gene is intrinsic to the promoter region but independent of the chromosomal location.Conclusions: The results indicate that the molecular properties of a given promoter, rather than the chromosomal topology, dictate the responsiveness to changes in supercoiling in the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. © 2014 Schröder et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Quabius E.S.,University of Kiel | Krupp G.,AmpTec GmbH
New Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Availability of high quality synthetic mRNAs (syn-mRNAs) has enabled progress in their applications. Important structural features and quality requirements are discussed. Developments in the application of mRNA-mediated manipulation of cells are presented (i) mRNA-directed expression of antigens in dendritic cells for vaccination projects in oncogenesis, infectious disease and allergy prevention; (ii) reprogramming of human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells with their subsequent differentiation to the desired cell type; (iii) applications in gene therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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