Germany
Germany

Time filter

Source Type

Fortmann J.,Senvion SE | Pfeiffer R.,Amprion GmbH | Haesen E.,L.E.S.S. | Van Hulle F.,XP Wind | And 3 more authors.
IET Renewable Power Generation | Year: 2015

The need for European Network Codes (NCs) was identified during the course of developing the third legislative package for an internal EU gas and electricity market. The first NC that was initiated by the European Commission covers 'Requirements for Generators' (NC RfG) (ENTSO-E, 2013). After an extensive debate and drafting process across TSOs, DSOs, manufacturers, generation owners, industrial consumers, NRAs and policy makers, ENTSO-E finalised drafting the NC RfG in March 2013 (Further changes, especially with respect to the fault-current injection by wind power plant (WPP) were introduced during the process of transferring NC RfG to a EU Regulation as result of the ongoing discussions between the European Commission and relevant stakeholders. See the remark in Section 3 'Outlook and Conclusion'.). European wind turbine manufacturers represented by EWEA participated strongly in the dialog with ENTSO-E and the stakeholder consultation. A delicate exercise in developing the NC RfG was the appropriate balance between those aspects that need to be defined exhaustively at European level, and the non-exhaustive connection requirements where further specifications are needed at regional level to cover local system needs. Although improvements were seen, significant concerns still remain with the current document, largely focused on the uncertainty from the many non-exhaustive requirements and therefore having to wait for the national Grid Code processes for many parameters. This study explores the need for fault-ride-through capability from a power system security point of view. The requirements stated in the NC RfG, capabilities of WPPs and challenges related to the non-exhaustive requirements of the NC RfG are presented and discussed with the intention to provide technical background information, which may support the national implementation of these requirements. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2015.


Ahlstrom M.,WindLogics Inc. | Bartlett D.,Xcel Energy Inc. | Collier C.,GL Garrad Hassan | Duchesne J.,AESO | And 10 more authors.
IEEE Power and Energy Magazine | Year: 2013

Imagine a world in which wind energy is dispatchable, following a set point from the system operator just like other power plants. Is this a future dream that will only happen with massive storage or other breakthroughs? No, not at all?it is happening now in major parts of North America and Europe. The implementation is straightforward with the right wind forecasts for the dispatch process, and in turn this creates more market participation and higher value for forecasts in other time frames. © 2003-2012 IEEE.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-06-2015 | Award Amount: 17.86M | Year: 2016

By 2020, several areas of the HVAC pan-European transmission system will be operated with extremely high penetrations of Power Electronics(PE)-interfaced generators, thus becoming the only generating units for some periods of the day or of the year due to renewable (wind, solar) electricity. This will result in i) growing dynamic stability issues for the power system (possibly a new major barrier against future renewable penetration), ii) the necessity to upgrade existing protection schemes and iii) measures to mitigate the resulting degradation of power quality due to harmonics propagation. European TSOs from Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and UK have joined to address such challenges with manufacturers (Alstom, Enercon, Schneider Electric) and universities/research centres. They propose innovative solutions to progressively adjust the HVAC system operations. Firstly, a replicable methodology is developed for appraising the distance of any EU 28 control zone to instability due to PE proliferation and for monitoring it in real time, along with a portfolio of incremental improvements of existing technologies (the tuning of controllers, a pilot test of wide-area control techniques and the upgrading of protection devices with impacts on the present grid codes). Next, innovative power system control laws are designed to cope with the lack of synchronous machines. Numerical simulations and laboratory tests deliver promising control solutions together with recommendations for new PE grid connection rules and the development of a novel protection technology and mitigation of the foreseen power quality disturbances. Technology and economic impacts of such innovations are quantified together with barriers to be overcome in order to recommend future deployment scenarios. Dissemination activities support the deployment schemes of the project outputs based on knowledge sharing among targeted stakeholders at EC level.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2011.7.2-1 | Award Amount: 5.25M | Year: 2012

The growing share of electricity generation from intermittent renewable energy sources as well as increasing market-based cross border flows and related physical flows are leading to rising uncertainties in transmission network operation. In the mainland central Europe synchronous area due to large installations of renewable energy generation such as wind and photovoltaic, the difference between actual physical flows and the market exchanges can be very substantial. Remedial actions were identified by previous smart grid studies within the 6th European framework program in operational risk assessment, flow control and operational flexibility measures for this area. At the same time an efficient and sustainable electricity system requires an efficient usage of existing and future transmission capacities to provide a maximum of transportation possibilities. New interconnections and devices for load flow control will be integrated in future transmission networks and will offer new operational options. Further developments of coordinated grid security tools are one of the major challenges TSOs will face in future. The methods to be applied have to take into account all technological measures to enhance flexibility of power system operations. The zonal structure of the European energy market along with the legal responsibilities of TSOs for different system areas will continue to pose increasingly complex requirements to the system operators concerning the quality and accuracy of cooperation. The proposed UMBRELLA research and demonstration project is designed for coping with these challenging issues and boundary conditions. The toolbox to be developed will enable TSOs to ensure secure grid operation also in future electricity networks with high penetration of intermittent renewables. It enables TSOs to act in a coordinated European target system where regional strategies converge to ensure the best possible use of the European electricity infrastructure.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2012.7.2.1 | Award Amount: 13.05M | Year: 2012

Eight Transmission System Operators (BE, CZ, FR, DE, IT, PT, CH, PL) and ENTSO-E, together with 4 associations of technology manufacturers, and 16 RTD performers propose a 3-year R&D project to develop and to apply a methodology for the long-term development of the Pan-European transmission network. The project aims at delivering a top-down methodology to support the planning from 2020 to 2050. First, it implements a set of future power scenarios, including generation units, the possible use of electricity storage and demand-side management solutions: scenarios for power localization are proposed with assumptions on the energy mix in each of the connected clusters covering the ENTSO-E area. Network studies are performed to detect the weak points when implementing the scenarios for 2050. Grid architectures options and a modular development plan are then proposed, including electricity highways, on the basis of power flow calculations, network stability analysis, socio-economic, network governance considerations, and with remarks from the consultation of European stakeholders. In parallel, an advanced planning methodology is designed, developed and tested with academic laboratories to address a few critical aspects of the above planning methodology, which may impact the robustness of the resulting architectures. This enhanced approach takes into account the correlated uncertainties in renewable generation and consumption, potential voltage and stability issues, and black-out risks including the feasibility of defence plans to avoid uncontrolled cascading failures of the candidate architectures. It includes the use of non-linear detailed models of power grids and stochastic optimization techniques. The dissemination is coordinated by ENTSO-E to reach the widest audience and to prepare the exploitation of the results. Standardization and complementary research efforts are pointed out for the future investment optimization with the support of the manufacturing industry.


Balzer G.,TU Darmstadt | Neumann C.,Amprion GmbH
CIGRE International Symposium Recife 2011 on Assessing and Improving Power System Security, Reliability and Performance in Light of Changing Energy Sources | Year: 2011

An important task of the asset management process is the evaluation of the long-range investment and resource planning of the assets of the complete power system and the life cycle cost assessment of different type of substations. The calculation of the long-range investment and resource planning can be performed by using dynamic asset simulation tools, which represent the statistical behavior of the complete asset group over a time range of 40 to 60 years. The final result is the evaluation of the total investment and operational expenditures as well as the comparison of different investment and maintenance strategies. The replacement rate of the different types of asset can be described by statistical data, e.g. Gaussian density functions, which can be gained from experience of the asset manager or from published reports. Depending on the age distribution of the installed assets, the number of the components to be replaced over the simulated time range can be evaluated. Under consideration of the yearly outage and maintenance costs the total costs of ownership can be calculated each year depending on the different group of costs. With consideration of the different expenditures and the knowledge how many components per year have to be maintained and replaced and on the basis of the failure rates ("major" and "minor" failures), in principle it is possible to evaluate the total expenditures for a group of equipment and in consequence for the entire system during the complete simulation period (e. g. 50 years). The life cycle cost (LCC) assessment consists of three main cost elements, the cost of acquisition, the cost of ownership and the renewal cost. These three cost elements are evaluated based on experience and on statistical data. According to the present value method all payments in the future, i. e. cost of ownership (costs for scheduled and unplanned maintenance) and renewal costs, have to be represented as present values related to the year 0, at which an interest rate of 10% and an inflation rate of 2.15% per year is taken into account. Finally, for evaluation of the total life cycle costs the different cost shares are accumulated, at which a period of consideration of 40 years and 50 years respectively is regarded.


Balzer G.,TU Darmstadt | Neumann C.,Amprion GmbH
CIGRE International Symposium Recife 2011 on Assessing and Improving Power System Security, Reliability and Performance in Light of Changing Energy Sources | Year: 2011

A high rate-of-rise of the transient recovery voltage (TRV) is expected in case of a fault with a serious reactor or power transformer, if a circuit-breaker has to switch off high short-circuit currents which occur if the fault is close to the transformer. The steepness of the voltage is mainly affected by the natural frequencies of the transformer which are in the range of some kHz up to a few ten kHz. Due to the small capacitances between the power transformer and the location of the circuit-breaker the steepness is only weakly damped. The relevant phenomena are called "Transformer limited Faults" which are covered in IEEE C37.011-2005 and ANSI Guide C37.06.1 "Guide for HV circuit-breakers designated definite purpose for fast TRV rise time". This report describes in detail this special switching duty for 380/110 kV coupling transformers installed in a typical air insulated substation. The switching duties dealt with are transformer fed faults with a short circuit on the 380 kV, 110 kV side and on the 30 kV tertiary. The simulation results based on transformer data from practice present the relevant amplitude and voltage rise which occur after first pole clearing. These values are compared with the relevant IEC Standard IEC 62271-100:2008. The investigation demonstrates that various switching duties considered are not covered by this Standard. In particular switching of short circuit currents on the tertiary of 380/110/30 kV transformers generates high current and voltage steepness. The short circuit currents are in the range of the rated values and the voltage steepness is distinctly beyond the rated values. In consequence this stress is normally beyond the ratings of a 30 kV breaker. Derived from these results it is shown which ratings have to be chosen and which measures can be taken to govern this switching duties in question.


Jost D.,Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology | Speckmann M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology | Speckmann M.,Amprion GmbH | Sandau F.,Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology | Schwinn R.,Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2015

In Germany, the installed capacity of renewable energy sources, especially that of wind and photovoltaic energy, has increased over the past few years and will continue to increase in the future. Due to errors in forecasting wind and photovoltaic energy, the control reserve needed to balance the electricity system will correspondingly increase if control reserves will be sized statically for several months or one year as it is done in most countries today [1-3]. That is because sizing control reserves this way does not consider the fact that there will be hours with a high penetration of wind and photovoltaic which cause a different demand for control reserves than hours with a lower penetration. Therefore, in this work, we present a new probabilistic dynamic method that sizes control reserves for the single hours of the following day making use of forecasts of the power feed-in of wind and photovoltaic. In contrast to similar approaches [2,3] forecast errors of wind and photovoltaic power are not modeled as normal distributions, which does not reflect reality [4-6], but by kernel density estimation to get more realistic distributions. Under a 100% renewable energy scenario for Germany, the control reserve that would be allocated by the dynamic method is compared with the control reserve that would be allocated by a static method. The static method is similar to the probabilistic Graf-Haubrich method, which is applied in Germany today, but can, in contrast to this method, be applied to future scenarios. It is shown that the dynamic method halves the average required control reserve. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Losing M.,Amprion GmbH | Schneider G.,RWE AG
VGB PowerTech | Year: 2012

After the disconnection of the power plant Biblis through the KKW-Moratorium 2011 the infeed of reactive power in the area around Frankfurt has been too low. With the rebuilding of the synchronous generator Biblis A into a synchronous motor (synchronous condenser) an adaptable and automatically regulated large reactive power compensation is available for supporting the grid voltage.


Ringelband T.,Amprion GmbH | Schafer P.,FGH E.V. | Moser A.,RWTH Aachen
Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

Dynamic thermal rating of overhead lines is a promising approach to increase transmission capacity by calculating weather-dependent thermal ratings (ampacities) of overhead lines in real time instead of using constant ratings. However, knowledge about ampacity is not only needed in real time but also on a day-ahead basis within network operational planning in order to assess network security. As life of humans may be endangered by inadmissible sag of overhead lines when current limits are violated there are high safety requirements concerning thermal ratings. Therefore, ampacity forecasts have to be complemented by a description of forecast uncertainty. So far, there is no method to forecast ampacities on a day-ahead basis considering uncertainty. As a comprehensive description of uncertainty is given by probability densities, this paper presents a novel method to calculate probability density functions of future ampacities based on probabilistic weather forecasts. The method's functionality is proved by application to exemplary data. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Loading Amprion GmbH collaborators
Loading Amprion GmbH collaborators