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Yao S.,Yale University | Yao S.,Amplimmune | Zhu Y.,Yale University | Chen L.,Yale University
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery | Year: 2013

The past decade has witnessed a surge in the development of immunomodulatory approaches to combat a broad range of human diseases, including cancer, viral infections, autoimmunity and inflammation as well as in the prevention of transplant rejection. Immunomodulatory approaches mostly involve the use of monoclonal antibodies or recombinant fusion proteins that target cell surface signalling molecules on immune cells to drive immune responses towards the desired direction. Advances in our understanding of the human immune system, along with valuable lessons learned from the first generation of therapeutic biologics, are aiding the design of the next generation of immunomodulatory biologics with better therapeutic efficacy, minimized adverse effects and long-lasting clinical benefit. The recent encouraging results from antibodies targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) and B7 homolog 1 (B7H1; also known as PDL1) for the treatment of various advanced human cancers show that immunomodulatory therapy has come of age. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Patent
Amplimmune and Johns Hopkins University | Date: 2013-12-23

Antibodies and humanized variants thereof and their antigen-binding fragments and to other molecules that are capable of immunospecifically binding to the B7-H7 counter-receptor, H7CR, and their uses in enhancing immune responses and the treatment and diagnosis of cancer and other diseases are provided.


Patent
Amplimmune and Johns Hopkins University | Date: 2013-12-19

Anti-human B7-H4 antibody 6H3, antigen-binding fragments, derivatives, and humanized variants thereof that are capable of immmospecifically binding to B7-H4, and the uses of such molecules in the diagnosis and the treatment of cancer and other diseases are disclosed. In preferred embodiments, the molecules are used to retard or prevent tumor growth, inhibit tumor-mediated suppression, eliminate tumors and/or deplete or block the activity of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) so as to alter their activity and/or decrease TAM-mediated immune suppression.


Patent
Amplimmune | Date: 2015-04-06

Fusion proteins containing B7-II4 polypeptides are disclosed. The B7-H4 fusion proteins can include full-length B7-H4 polypeptides, or can contain a fragment of a full-length B7-H4 polypeptide, including some or all of the extracellular domain of the B7-H4 polypeptide. Methods for using the fusion proteins to downregulate T cell activation and for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and disorders are also disclosed. The B7-H4 fusion proteins are useful for treating inflammation by inhibiting or reducing differentiation, proliferation, activity, and/or cytokine production and/or secretion by Th1, Th1 7, Th22, and/or other cells that secrete, or cause other cells to secrete, inflammatory molecules, including, but not limited to, IL-1, TNF-, TGF-beta, IFN-, IL-17, IL-6, IL-23, IL-22, IL-21, and MMPs; or enhancing IL-IO secretion by Tregs, increasing the differentiation of Tregs, increasing the number of Tregs, or combinations thereof.


Methods for modulating immune responses in a subject are provided. A preferred embodiment provides methods and compositions for reducing or inhibiting transplant rejection in a subject, preferably a human subject. Transplant rejection can be inhibited or reduced in a subject by administering an effective amount of B7-H4 polypeptide, fragments or fusions thereof to inhibit or reduce the biological activity of an immune cell or to reduce the amounts of proinflammatory molecules at a site of transplant. Th1, Th17 and Th22 cells are exemplary T cells that can be targeted for inhibition by B7-H4 polypeptides, fusion proteins or fragments thereof to inhibit or reduce inflammation.


Patent
Amplimmune | Date: 2015-10-07

Methods of treating cancer and infectious diseases utilizing a treatment regimen comprising administering a compound that reduces inhibitory signal transduction in T cells, in combination with a potentiating agent, such a cyclophosphamide, to produce potent T cell mediated responses, are described. Compositions comprising the PD-1 antagonists and potentiating agents useful in the methods of the invention are also disclosed.


Methods and compositions for treating an infection or disease that results from (1) failure to elicit rapid T cell mediated responses, (2) induction of T cell exhaustion, T cell anergy or both, or (3) failure to activate monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and/or other APCs, for example, as required to kill intracellular pathogens. The method and compositions solve the problem of undesired T cell inhibition by binding to and blocking PD-I to prevent or reduce inhibitory signal transduction, or by binding to Hgands of PD-I such as PD-L1, thereby preventing (in whole or in part) the ligand from binding to PD-I to deliver an inhibitory signal. The immune response can be modulated by providing antagonists which bind with different affinity (i.e., more or less as required), by varying the dosage of agent which is administered, by intermittent dosing over a regime, and combinations thereof, that provides for dissociation of agent from the molecule to which it is bound prior to being administered again (similar to what occurs with antigen elicitation using priming and boosting). In some cases it may be particularly desirable to stimulate the immune system, then remove the stimulation.


Patent
Amplimmune | Date: 2014-05-19

Isolated cell surface receptors for B7-H4 have been identified based on function. B7-H4 receptor activation by B7-H4 on the dendritic cell, T follicular helper cell and germinal center B cell membrane stimulates inhibitory signaling in those leukocytes. B7-H4 receptor activation decreases production and/or secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and promotes anti-inflammatory cytokine by mature DC and T cells. Modulators of B7-H4 receptor polypeptides and methods for their therapeutic use are also provided.


Patent
Amplimmune | Date: 2012-04-19

The present invention relates to antibodies and their antigen-binding fragments and to other molecules that are capable of immunospecifically binding to B7-H1 or PD-1. In some embodiments such molecules are additionally capable of modulating the ability of B7-H1 or B7-DC to bind to PD-1 or are capable of affecting the signaling activity of the B7-H1 or PD-1. The invention additionally concerns the uses of such molecules in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other diseases.


Methods and compositions for treating an infection or disease that results from (1) failure to elicit rapid T cell mediated responses, (2) induction of T cell exhaustion, T cell anergy or both, or (3) failure to activate monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and/or other APCs, for example, as required to kill intracellular pathogens. The method and compositions solve the problem of undesired T cell inhibition by binding to and blocking PD-1 to prevent or reduce inhibitory signal transduction, or by binding to ligands of PD-1 such as PD-L1, thereby preventing (in whole or in part) the ligand from binding to PD-1 to deliver an inhibitory signal. The immune response can be modulated by providing antagonists which bind with different affinity (i.e., more or less as required), by varying the dosage of agent which is administered, by intermittent dosing over a regime, and combinations thereof, that provides for dissociation of agent from the molecule to which it is bound prior to being administered again (similar to what occurs with antigen elicitation using priming and boosting). In some cases it may be particularly desirable to stimulate the immune system, then remove the stimulation.

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