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Chang T.-C.,Taipei Medical University | Yeh C.-T.,Taipei Medical University | Adebayo B.O.,Taipei Medical University | Lin Y.-C.,Taipei Medical University | And 10 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2015

4-Acetylantroquinonol B (4-AAQB), closely related to the better known antroquinonol, is a bioactive isolate of the mycelia of Antrodia camphorata, a Taiwanese mushroom with documented anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, vasorelaxative, and recently demonstrated, antiproliferative activity. Based on its traditional use, we hypothesized that 4-AAQB may play an active role in the suppression of cellular transformation, tumor aggression and progression, as well as chemoresistance in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative role of 4-AAQB and its underlying molecular mechanism. We also compared its anticancer therapeutic potential with that of antroquinonol and the CRC combination chemotherapy of choice - folinic acid, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). Our results showed that 4-AAQB was most effective in inhibiting tumor proliferation, suppressing tumor growth and attenuating stemness-related chemoresistance. 4-AAQB negatively regulates vital oncogenic and stem cell maintenance signal transduction pathways, including the Lgr5/Wnt/β-catenin, JAK-STAT, and non-transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, as well as inducing a dose-dependent downregulation of ALDH and other stemness related factors. These results were validated in vivo, with animal studies showing 4-AAQB possessed comparable tumor-shrinking ability as FOLFOX and potentiates ability of the later to reduce tumor size. Thus, 4-AAQB, a novel small molecule, projects as a potent therapeutic agent for monotherapy or as a component of standard combination chemotherapy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Nie K.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Nie K.,Amoy BUCT Industrial Bio Technovation Institute | Wang F.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Tan T.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Liu L.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Non-edible oils are preferred raw materials for biodiesel production. However, the properties of raw materials significantly affect the synthesis process, leading to difficulties to design one process suitable for any kind of raw material. In this study, the composition of five typical non-edible oils was analyzed. The major difference was the content of free fatty acids, reflected from their acid values. The influence of different oils was investigated by using lipase from Candida sp. 99–125. At low lipase dosage and low water content, the conversion was found proportional to the acid value. However, by increasing the water content or lipase dosage, we observed that the conversions for all kinds of oils used in this study could exceed 80 %. Time course analysis indicates that the lipase used in this study catalyzed hydrolysis followed by esterification, rather than direct transesterification. Accumulation of free fatty acids at the very beginning was necessary. A high water content facilitated the hydrolysis of oils with low acid value. This lipase showed capability to transform all the oils by controlling the water content. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Liu H.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Wang W.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Deng L.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Deng L.,Amoy BUCT Industrial Bio Technovation Institute | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

Fumaric acid, as an important material for polymerization, is highly expected to be produced by fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass which is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Xylose as the main component of hemicellulose cannot be efficiently utilized by most of the common fermentation. In this study, a new strain Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13-9# was selected from the R. arrhizus RH 7-13 through a novel convenient and efficient selection method. Efficient production of fumaric acid (45.31. g/L) from xylose was achieved by the new strain, and the volumetric productivity was still 0.472. g/L. h. Moreover, the conversion of xylose reached 73% which is close to the theoretic yield (77%). The production of fumaric acid was increased approximate by 172%, compared with the initial strain counterpart. These results indicated that xylose, as the main component of hemicellulose, has a promising application for the production of fumaric acid on an industrial-scale. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Nie K.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Nie K.,Amoy BUCT Industrial Bio Technovation Institute | Wang M.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Zhang X.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | And 6 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2015

Biodiesel production from waste oil by lipase Candida sp. 99-125 assisted with cyclodextrin as additive was investigated in a solvent free system. The optimum reaction conditions was determined toward lipase dosage, agitation speed, cyclodextrin loading, water content and reuse ability of free lipase. A certain dosage of cyclodextrin showed a significant improvement of the reactions. However, the agitation speed should not be too high, to avoid breaking the weak bond between cyclodextrin and lipase. The optimal conditions were: free lipase dosage 70 U/g oil (about 0.4 wt% to the oil weight, when activity of lipase was 20,000 IU), cyclodextrin to lipase 2:1(g/g), water content 2 wt% (water/oil, g/g), and agitation speed 180 rpm. Methanol was added 30 times at 1/30 M equivalent each hour. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of FAMEs achieved 88%. After 5 cycles of reuse, no significant decrease in FAMEs yield was observed. The process has been successfully carried out at industrial scale in Shanghai, China. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wang M.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Nie K.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Nie K.,Amoy BUCT Industrial Bio Technovation Institute | Yun F.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | And 5 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2015

Poor low temperature behavior, the critical defect of biodiesel, limits its utilization in cold districts. This research provided a new biodiesel production process by enzymatic synthesis using fusel alcohol and fatty acid esters in a solvent free system with a significant effect on the improvement of biodiesel's low temperature performance. The optimal conditions for the enzymatic reaction of fusel alcohol and waste cooking oil (WCO) esters were established: immobilized lipase 14% (w/w), total water content 5% (w/w), 40°C, three-times feeding daily, shaking speed 200rpm. The ester yield reached 90.4% under optimal conditions. The cold filter plugging point (CFPP) of the fusel alcohol esters was-11°C, 16°C lower than the methyl esters of the WCO. The green enzymatic synthesis process and the CFPP results were examined in this research. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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