Irish medical journal | Year: 2012
We present a salutary lesson learned from three cases with significant complications that followed anorectal intervention in the presence of radiation proctitis due to prior radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. After apparent routine rubber band ligation for painful haemorrhoids, one patient developed a colo-cutaneous fistula. Following laser coagulation for radiation proctitis, one patient required a pelvic exenteration for a fistula, while another developed a rectal stenosis. Those diagnosing and treating colonic conditions should be mindful of the increased prevalence of patients who have had radiotherapy for prostate cancer and the potential for complications in treating these patients.
Irish medical journal | Year: 2012
Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.
BMJ case reports | Year: 2012
The authors describe the case of a 16-month-old girl who presented with bilateral hydronephrosis and renal failure secondary to bilateral renal pelvic botryoid Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma). The term 'botryoid' describes an intrapelvic polypoid renal Wilms tumour, either extending from the renal parenchyma or primarily pelvis-based tumour. Both tumours filled the renal pelvis and extended down the proximal ureter, with no intraparenchymal tumour seen. Bilateral intralobar nephrogenic rests were present. Histological examination demonstrated triphasic nephroblastoma, with focal rhabdomyomatous differentiation of the stromal element bilaterally. Postchemotherapy, the patient underwent bilateral nephrectomy. Post complete resection of her bilateral disease, this patient has had an excellent outcome. This is only the third reported case of bilateral botryoid Wilms' tumour. While the condition is extremely rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of a young child with bilateral renal pelvic masses.
Irish medical journal | Year: 2010
Guidelines for the management of spontaneous pneumothorax were published by the British Thoracic Society (BTS) in 2003. The aim of our study was to assess compliance with the BTS guidelines. A retrospective review was performed on all spontaneous pneumothoraces admitted to our hospital between June 2006 and December 2007. There were 29 pneumothoraces during the study period, 20 of which were primary spontaneous pneumothoraces (PSPs). All 15 (100%) large PSPs had an intercostal drain (ICD) inserted with a mean calibre of 20Fr, however only 1 of the 15 (6.7%) had a prior attempt at aspiration. High flow oxygen was used in 3/20 (15%) PSPs and 1/9 (11%) secondary spontaneous pneumothoraces (SSPs). 5/6 (83%) of large SSPs had ICDs placed with a mean calibre of 23.3Fr. Compliance with BTS guidelines was suboptimal. In particular, simple aspiration was underutilised with an over-reliance on unnecessary tube thoracostomy. Moreover, the calibre of intercostal drains used was in excess of BTS recommendations. This study highlights the need to formally adopt BTS guidelines, thereby establishing a more standardised practice which should improve management of spontaneous pneumothoraces.
Irish medical journal | Year: 2010
A recent study raised concerns regarding the ability of the health professions admission test (HPAT) Ireland to improve the selection process in Irish medical schools. We aimed to establish whether performance in a mock HPAT correlated with academic success in medicine. A modified HPAT examination and a questionnaire were administered to a group of doctors and medical students. There was a significant correlation between HPAT score and college results (r2: 0.314, P = 0.018, Spearman Rank) and between leaving cert score and college results (r2: 0.306, P = 0.049, Spearman Rank). There was no correlation between leaving cert points score and HPAT score. There was no difference in HPAT score across a number of other variables including gender, age and medical speciality. Our results suggest that both the HPAT Ireland and the leaving certificate examination could act as independent predictors of academic achievement in medicine.
Irish medical journal | Year: 2012
Patients that sustain pelvic and/or acetabular trauma in Ireland and require surgical intervention are treated at the Adelaide and Meath National Children's Hospital (AMNCH). For this study an audit was conducted of all pelvic and acetabular fractures referred to the AMNCH over a 12 month period from July 2010 to June 2011. This study was conducted with the purpose of recording the different fracture patterns, methods of injury and surgical procedures performed over this time frame. The results demonstrate that 109 patients were referred to the AMNCH with the majority of these fractures being sustained as the result of an RTA (43) or a fall from a height (45). Seventy one patients suffered an acetabular fracture while 43 patients suffered a fracture of their pelvic ring with some patients suffering both. There were 129 surgical procedures performed with 25 patients having more than one surgical procedure.
O'Donnell S.,AMNCH |
O'Morain C.A.,Trinity College Dublin
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease | Year: 2010
Budesonide is a synthetic steroid of the glucocorticoid family with a high topical anti-inflammatory activity. Enteric-coated formulations resist gastric-acid degradation, delivering active drug to the small intestine and proximal colon. Budesonide has a high first-pass metabolism with minimal systemic absorption. It is therefore felt to cause fewer side effects than traditional glucocorticosteroids and to be generally well tolerated. The aim of this paper is to examine the utility of this medication in frequently encountered gastrointestinal conditions: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, microscopic colitis and eosinophilic oesophagitis. A Medline search was performed to find published original research and review articles relating to the use budesonide in common gastroenterological conditions. The results showed that budesonide is efficacious in the induction and short-term maintenance of Crohn's disease. Budesonide is the best-documented treatment for microscopic colitis. It is well proven to be effective in the induction of remission in collagenous colitis but its use in lymphocytic colitis remains less well documented. In conclusion, budesonide is an effective glucocorticosteroid therapy for many chronic gastrointestinal diseases. In combination with its efficacy, the low incidence of serious side effects associated with this drug should keep it at the forefront in the therapeutic arsenal of any gastroenterologist. © The Author(s), 2010.
Irish medical journal | Year: 2011
Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.
O'Kelly S.,Trinity College Dublin |
Smith S.M.,Trinity College Dublin |
Lane S.,AMNCH |
Teljeur C.,Trinity College Dublin |
O'Dowd T.,Trinity College Dublin
Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2011
Background: Multimorbidity is defined as two or more co-existing chronic conditions in an individual and is common in general practice. It is associated with poorer outcomes for patients. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of multimorbidity in patients with chronic respiratory disease in general practice and to describe its impact on health service use. Methods: Cross-sectional study based in general practice in Dublin. Drug and disease code searches were performed to identify adult patients with a diagnosis of chronic respiratory disease. Medical records were reviewed for chronic respiratory diagnosis, other chronic conditions, demographic characteristics, General Practitioner (GP) and practice nurse utilisation rates, and numbers of medications. Results: In a general practice population of 16,946 patients 3.9% had chronic respiratory disease and 60% of these had one or more co-existing chronic condition(s). GP and practice nurse utilisation rates, and number of medications were significantly higher among those with multimorbidity compared with those with respiratory disease alone. Multivariate analysis showed that increasing age and low socio-economic status were significantly associated with multimorbidity. Conclusion: The majority of patients with chronic respiratory disease have multimorbidity. Clinical guidelines based on single disease entities and outcomes are not as easy to implement and may not be as effective in this group. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Irish medical journal | Year: 2013
Although the clinical signs of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not evident until adulthood, many of the risk factors have their roots in early childhood. The aim of this study was to examine physical activity levels (PA) and the incidence of CVD risk factors in a small population (n=102) of primary school children in Dublin. Risk factors measured included overweight/obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure (BP), physical fitness and PA levels. Over a quarter of the group were overweight/obese (n = 29, 28%). Despite relatively good fitness levels, PA levels were low with less than half the group (n = 44, 46%) participating in the recommended 1 hour/day. Fewer girls reported spending > 1 hour/day at PA compared to boys (n = 14 v n = 30). Six children had elevated cholesterol levels and five children had higher than normal BP values. Sixteen children demonstrated clustering of CVD risk factors and in those who were inactive the risk was greater. Our data suggest that in children as young as 10 years significant risk factors already exist. Furthermore, the low level of PA in girls provides a target for health promotion programmes.