Mills C.M.,University of Texas at Dallas |
Elashi F.B.,Amman Arab University
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology | Year: 2014
The current study examined some key developmental and individual differences in how elementary school-aged children evaluate sources of information. A sample of 130 children ages 6 to 9. years participated in a task designed to measure children's understanding of ways that claims can be distorted (i.e., biased decisions, skewed self-reports, and misleading persuasive claims). Children also completed several individual difference measures, including a brief intelligence task and an advanced social cognition measure (interpretive theory of mind). Overall, older children were less trusting and better than younger children at explaining the reasons to doubt sources that might provide distorted claims. Crucially, the results also suggest that beyond age, both general intelligence and advanced social cognitive skills play roles in children's ability to understand when and why they must doubt sources of distortion. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Elashi F.B.,Amman Arab University |
Mills C.M.,University of Texas at Dallas
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology | Year: 2014
Two experiments examined how an informant's group membership can influence children's trust decisions. Participants (3- to 7-year-olds, N= 162) were assigned to either the red or blue group based on their selection of a red or blue apron and watched an in-group and out-group informant provide conflicting names for a set of novel objects. When asked which informant they would prefer to rely on for new information, nearly all age groups trusted the in-group informant. Children then watched as each informant varied in accuracy by labeling either all or none of four familiar items accurately and were then asked which informant's labels they preferred for learning new information. When the in-group informant had previously demonstrated accuracy, children continued to trust the in-group informant for new information. In contrast, when the in-group informant had previously demonstrated inaccuracy, children were unsure who to trust, with only 6- and 7-year-olds showing a decrease in their trust for the inaccurate in-group informant. These findings demonstrate that group membership can skew how children encode new information and can make children uncertain about whom to trust for information. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Afaneh S.,Isra University of Jordan |
Zitar R.A.,University of Jordan |
Al-Hamami A.,Amman Arab University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2013
This paper presents a novel approach for computer viruses detection based on modeling the structures and dynamics of real life paradigm that exists in the bodies of all living creatures. It aims to develop an algorithm based on the concept of the artificial immune system (AIS) for the purpose of detecting viruses. The algorithm is called Virus Detection Clonal algorithm (VDC), and it is derived from the clonal selection algorithm. The VDC algorithm consists of three basic steps: cloning, hyper-mutation and stochastic re-selection. In later stage, the developed VDC algorithm is subjected to validation, which consists of two phases; learning and testing. Two main parameters are determined; one of them is setting the number of signatures per clone (Fat), while the other defines the hypermutation probability (Pm). Later on, the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used as a tool, to improve the developed algorithm by searching the values of the main parameters (Fat and Pm) to reproduce better results. The results have shown that the detection rate of viruses, by using the developed algorithm, is 94.4%, whereas the detection rate of false positives has reached 0%. These percentages indicate that the VDC algorithm is sufficient and usable in this field. Moreover, the results of employing the GA to optimize the VDC algorithm have shown an improvement in the detection speed of the algorithm. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Shawar B.A.,Amman Arab University
International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning | Year: 2015
Web accessibility concerns of building websites that are accessible by all people regardless of their ability or disability. The W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) has been established to raise awareness of universal access. WAI develops guidelines which can help to ensure that Web pages are widely accessible. Assistive technology is used to increase, improve, and maintain capabilities of disabled persons to execute tasks that are sometimes difficult or impossible to do without technical aid. Also it helps them achieve their scholar, professional and social activities. This paper exposes an approach to investigate accessible contents of educational websites to ensure and measure its compliance with accessibility standards for visually impaired people. This study focuses on studying existing standards and investigating its applicability on educational institute websites. This will increase accessibility on e-learning materials that are provided by educational institutes. In this paper a sample of websites at selected universities in Jordan are evaluated in terms of accessibility in comparison to some universities websites in England and Arabic region. Results show that accessibility errors of universities websites in Jordan, and Arab region exceed the ones in UK by 13 times, and 5 times consequently.
Al-Sadi J.,Amman Arab University
Journal of Supercomputing | Year: 2012
We have recently introduced the Extended OTIS-n-Cube to overcome the weakness of some limitations found in the well-known OTIS-n-Cube such as the degree and the diameter. This paper investigates the topological properties of the new interconnection network by proposing an extensive study on some attractive topological properties of the extended OTIS-n-Cube interconnection network. Inspired by the attractive features of the new network, such as regular degree, small diameter, and semantic structure, we present a theoretical study on some topological properties of the Extended OTIS-n-Cube including routing paths and embedded cycles. Furthermore, the paper presents a performance evaluation on the topology by comparing it with the OTIS-n-Cube. Results prove the superiority of the new topology especially in minimizing routing distances. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Ilyas A.I.,Amman Arab University
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2016
This paper distinguishes between traditional teaching known as lecturing (the teacher centered approach); and tutoring (the contemporary technology-oriented interactive teaching/learning approach). It is based on the implementation of tutoring strategies of ‘blended studies’ at the Arab Open University. It investigates the application of modern interactive teaching/learning strategies, specifying some hindering factors in the AOU-Jordan Branch context. The factors include four variables: tutors, students, course material and assessment. The paper is based on qualitative research in terms of a real teaching/leaning context, using both observation and conversation with learners, besides the use of some quantitative data retrieved from a questionnaire in which learners’ views are sought regarding a number of relevant matters. A number of suggested solutions related to each of the hindering factors are presented, which if applied, may secure shifting the balance of the teaching/learning process to a more interactive technology-based tutoring level, which in turn will enhance learners’ opportunities for the attainment of better academic standards, and secure a higher degree of achievement of the shared educational goals of learners and the educational institution they study in. © 2016, Australian International Academic Centre PTY LTD. All rights reserved.
Al-Sadi J.A.,Amman Arab University
Concurrency Computation | Year: 2015
Summary The Optical Transpose Interconnection System (OTIS) optoelectronic interconnection network architecture is a promising attraction in the new era of parallel computing topologies because of its attractive topological properties. Recently, many enhancements were presented on OTIS topologies including the Extended OTIS-n-Cube interconnection networks. Therefore, all performance improvement characteristics of such a promising architecture need to be investigated; one of which is load balancing technique. This paper focuses on developing an efficient algorithm for load balancing on the promising Extended OTIS-n-Cube interconnection networks. The proposed algorithm is called Factor-Optical-Factor Exchange Model. Furthermore, this paper presents theoretical and experimental study on the proposed algorithm in terms of various parameters including execution time, load balancing accuracy, number of communication steps, and speed. Results show superiority of the proposed algorithm over the well-known Clustered Dimension Exchange Method (CDEM) algorithm in terms of execution time, number of communication steps, and speed, while maintaining the same level of accuracy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Otair M.,Amman Arab University
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2015
Compression is a technique to minimize the quantity of image without excessively decreasing the quality of the image. Then, the translating of compressed image is much more efficient and rapidly than original image. Arithmetic and Huffman coding are mostly used techniques in the entropy coding. This study tries to prove that RLC may be added after Arithmetic coding as an extra processing step which may therefore be coded efficiently without any further degradation of the image quality. So, the main purpose of this study is to answer the following question "Which entropy coding, arithmetic with RLC or Huffman with RLC, is more suitable from the compression ratio perspective?" Finally, experimental results show that an Arithmetic followed by RLC coding yields better compression performance than Huffman with RLC coding. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2015.
Otair M.,Amman Arab University
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2015
In last two decades, Online (Web) auctions and its types took a lot of attention by researchers and business corporates. The main problem in many auction types is the fixed-closing time, which causes a phenomenon called “sniping” (i.e. submitting a bid at the final moments by one of the bidders). This paper resolved this problem by presenting a proposed type of online auctions called Least and Unique Price with Ascending Slices (LUP-AS) which is an enhanced version of LUP . In the LUP-AS, the item price will be collected by the bidding processes. During the auction life there will be many temporary winners (who submit the least and unique price). However, the winner in this auction has to submit the least, unique but his price must be greater than the number of cancelled bids. The number of cancelled bid is a counter incremented by one when a bidder submit a least but not unique price during the auction life. The main advantages of LUP-AS are: Funny (like playing game), semi-sealed, dynamic (no fixed closing time and discard the snipers), the winner pay a very least price for item, and the seller gets the fair price. An implementation of LUP-AS uses an Artificial Neural Network in order to provide the administrators the ability to classify the bidders into groups to distribute special benefits according to each group. © 2005 - 2015 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.
Shawar B.A.,Amman Arab University
Proceedings - 2015 International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud, FiCloud 2015 and 2015 International Conference on Open and Big Data, OBD 2015 | Year: 2015
e-Learning paradigm offers the opportunity of learning to anyone, any where, and any time using different mediums. Many quality factors and aspects have been investigated to measure quality of such learning approach. In this paper, students' satisfaction and tutors' satisfaction are used as indicators to evaluate e-Learning approach used at Arab Open University. The Arab Open University (AOU) is the most popular university in Arab region that mainly use e-learning approach to deliver all its courses and programs through a Learning Management System (LMS). The evaluation is conducted in first semester of the academic year 2014 at Jordan branch; results reveal that students are satisfied on their tutors and tutorials more than their satisfaction on their courses. At the same time, tutors are satisfied with university support facilities, duties, and courses. However they found that English level of courses is not competent with students' level of English language. The aim is to contribute on development process of e-learning based on tutors and students' evaluation results. © 2015 IEEE.