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Chicago Ridge, IL, United States

Wang J.P.,Dankook University | Chi F.,Amlan International | Kim I.H.,Dankook University
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of montmorillonite clay (MC) on performance and nutrient digestibility of pigs challenged with zearalenone (ZEA). In experiment 1, 144 gilts (10.07. ±. 0.87. kg) were assigned to 1 of 8 treatments in 2. ×. 4 factorial randomized complete block design for a 28. d trial (6 pigs/pen, 3 pens/treatment). Factors included (1) ZEA levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8. mg ZEA/kg) and (2) MC addition [Clay to ZEA ratio maintained at 2500:1 (w:w)]. These diets included: (1) control, (2) control. +. 2. g MC/kg, (3) control. +. 0.2. mg ZEA/kg, (4) control. +. 0.2. mg ZEA/kg. +. 0.5. g MC/kg, (5) control. +. 0.4. mg ZEA/kg, (6) control. +. 0.4. mg ZEA/kg. +. 1. g MC/kg, (7) control. +. 0.8. mg ZEA/kg, and (8) control. +. 0.8. mg ZEA/kg. +. 2. g MC/kg. The ZEA challenges were shown to linearly depress (P=0.03) average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency, but the addition of MC improved (P=0.03) feed efficiency in the overall phase. Coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen decreased (linear effect, P<0.05) as the ZEA levels increased and nitrogen digestibility were improved (P<0.01) by MC supplementation. Zearalenone linearly increased (P<0.05) vulva size (width, length, and area). Addition of MC reduced (P<0.05) average vulva width and area. Faecal Lactobacillus counts were increased (P=0.01) and Escherichia coli were reduced (P=0.01) in the MC supplemented treatments at 2 and 4. wk regardless of the level of the MC. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration increased (linear effect at 2 and 4. wk, P<0.05) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activities decreased (linear effect at 4. wk, P<0.05) as dietary ZEA dosage increased; MC supplementation reversed (P<0.05) these effects. In experiment 2, 64 pigs (27.13. ±. 1.39. kg) that were pre-fed ZEA treatments (0, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8. mg ZEA/kg) for 28. d in experiment 1, were randomly divided into two halves and fed either control diet or control. +. 2. g MC/kg for 18. d (2 gilts/pen, 4 pens/treatment). Adding 2. g MC/kg increased (P<0.05) ADG, and decrease the vulva size and serum MAD concentration in pigs pre-fed ZEA diets throughout the 18. d period. Serum SOD concentration increased (P<0.05) in those pigs fed MC on d 9. The results suggest that feeding low levels of ZEA reduced nutrient digestibility, increased oxidative stress, and negatively affected pigs' growth, and montmorillonite clay was beneficial for detoxification of ZEA in pigs under and after ZEA challenge. © 2012.

Li Y.,South China Agricultural University | Liu Y.H.,South China Agricultural University | Yang Z.B.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wan X.L.,Shandong Agricultural University | Chi F.,Amlan International
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2012

A 3-wk experiment was conducted to investigate the ability of clay enterosorbent to counteract the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from naturally contaminated moldy corn (Zea mays; 170 μg/kg of AFB1) on hematology, serum biochemistry, and oxidative stress in ducklings. Six hundred forty 1-d-old healthy Cherry Valley Ducks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: 1) low-AFB1 diets (LA), without contaminated corn; 2) LA + clay enterosorbent; 3) high-AFB1 diets (HA), with contaminated corn; and 4) HA + clay enterosorbent. There were 8 replicates of 20 birds each. Blood and liver samples from 8 ducks per treatment were obtained at d 21 to determine hematological, biochemical, and antioxidant status. All ducklings had similar ADFI and FCR. However, consumption of the HA diet caused lower (P < 0.05) 21-d BW and ADG than consumption of the LA + clay diet. Compared with ducklings fed the LA diet, those fed the HA diet had an increased (P < 0.05) lymphocyte percentage and had decreased (P < 0.05) granulocyte, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations. Adding 0.1% clay enterosorbent to the HA diets counteracted those effects to some extent. However, the platelet count of ducklings fed the AFB1 diet decreased (P < 0.05) with or without the 0.1% clay enterosorbent. Ducks fed the HA diet had reduced (P < 0.05) activities of creatine kinase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total superoxide dismutase in the serum, and glutathione peroxidase in both the serum and liver, decreased concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein in the serum, but increased (P < 0.05) activities of alkaline phosphatase in the serum and malondialdehyde in the serum and liver. Addition of 0.1% clay enterosorbent to the HA diet increased (P < 0.05) activities of creatine kinase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and concentrations of all metabolites in the serum, but decreased (P < 0.05) activities of alkaline phosphatase in the serum and malondialdehyde in the serum and liver. Feeding AFB1-contaminated corn had a detrimental effect on ducklings, and addition of 0.1% clay enterosorbent to the diet was effective in counteracting the toxic effects. © 2012 Poultry Science Association, Inc.

Zou Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang Z.B.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang W.R.,Shandong Agricultural University | Jiang S.Z.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2012

A 15-d metabolic experiment in female broilers was carried out to examine the effect of purified zearalenone (ZEA; 0 vs. 1 mg/kg) on the apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM), CP, and gross energy (GE) of diets containing fumonisin (FUM, 3.15 or 5.50 mg/kg) from naturally contaminated corn (Zea mays). Forty-eight 28-d-old female broilers were assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and fed 1 of 4 diets: 1) low ZEA (0 mg/kg) and low (3.15 mg/kg) FUM, 2) low ZEA and high (5.50 mg/kg) FUM, 3) high ZEA (1 mg/kg) and low FUM, and 4) high ZEA and high FUM. Birds were housed in 24 wire cages in an environmentally controlled room, fed ad libitum, and allowed free access to water. Feed intake and excreta of each replicate were collected at 3-d intervals during the 15-d experiment to determine the DM, OM, CP, and GE digestibility. All broiler groups had similar ADG, ADFI, and FCR (P > 0.05). Supplementation of ZEA at 1 mg/kg induced a tendency for increased FCR (P = 0.079). Apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, and GE were not affected by the 2 levels of FUM in corn (P > 0.05) but were increased significantly by purified ZEA (P < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility increased with time, possibly because of accumulation of dietary ZEA. In conclusion, nutrient digestibility in female broilers may be improved by dietary ZEA at a level of 1 mg/kg but was not affected by different levels of dietary FUM. © 2012 Poultry Science Association, Inc.

Jiang S.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang Z.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang W.,Shandong Agricultural University | Gao J.,Taian Central Hospital Stomatology | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

Zearalenone (ZEA), commonly present in corn and its derived products for animals, has caused significant economical impact on swine reproduction in China. The present study therefore attempted to reveal the adverse effects of ZEA (1.3 mg/kg diet) exposure from a viewpoint of damages focusing on the liver and kidney of female piglets. The efficacy of dietary montmorillonite clay in preventing ZEA-induced adverse effects was also determined. Treatments were 1) control; 2) control + 2.5 g/kg clay; 3) control + 1 mg/kg ZEA; 4) control + 1 mg/kg ZEA + 1.25 g/kg clay; 5) control + 1 mg/kg ZEA + 2.5 g/kg clay; 6) control + 1 mg/kg ZEA + 5.0 g/kg clay; 7) control + 1 mg/kg ZEA + 10 g/kg clay. Results showed that pigs fed ZEA-contaminated diet reduced (P < 0.05) platelets, haemoglobin, globulin, triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) in serum, and increased (P < 0.05) all enzymes activities, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine. Degeneration of the liver and kidney tissues was also found in female piglets fed 1.3 mg/kg ZEA-contaminated diet. Dietary addition of clay showed a positive protection effect on ZEA feeding, and the linear or quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on neutralizing detrimental effects of clay in ZEA feeding were observed. It suggested that feeding ZEA at 1.3 mg/kg diet for 24-d may result in a deleterious effect in female piglets, and clay addition at 5 or 10 g/kg diet can effectively protect against the detrimental effects of the ZEA feeding. These results may have implications for human and animals consuming ZEA-contaminated food or feed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Jiang S.Z.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang Z.B.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang W.R.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yao B.Q.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2010

The effects of different levels of natural clay enterosorbent on the growth, nutrient availability, and genital organs of post-weaning female pigs fed with an addition of zearalenone (ZEA) were investigated in the study. A total of thirty-five post-weaning gilts (L×Y×D) with an average body weight of 12.36±1.46 kg were used in the test. The gilts were raised individually in metabolism cages and fed a corn-soybean meal-whey basal diet with an addition of 0 or 1 mg/kg of ZEA for 24 d with four levels of natural clay enterosorbent added in the feed. The treatments were: i) control; ii) control+2.5 g/kg clay; iii) control+1 mg/kg ZEA; iv) control+1 mg/kg ZEA+1.25 g/kg clay; v) control+1 mg/kg ZEA+2.5 g/kg clay; vi) control+1 mg/kg ZEA+5.0 g/kg clay; vii) control+1 mg/kg ZEA +10 g/kg clay. Pigs fed diets contaminated with additional purified ZEA had significantly reduced apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), gross energy (GE) and apparent metabolic rate of GE (ME/GE, p<0.05) without changes of net protein utilization (NPU, p>0.05). Final body weight, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), vulva length, vulva width, vulva area, relative weights of genital organ and proliferative changes of the ovary tissues in gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet were increased (p<0.05) compared to the gilts fed the control diet. Addition of natural clay enterosorbent in the ZEA-contaminated diet showed a positive protection effect on ZEA feeding, and the protection was increased linearly or quadratically as clay content increased. However, in pigs fed a diet with clay alone at 2.5 g/kg level there was no significant impact (p>0.05) on all the parameters as compared to the control. It is suggested that feeding ZEA at about 1.0 mg/kg for 24 days might result in a deleterious effect in pigs, and addition of 5 or 10 g clay enterosorbent per kg diet can effectively neutralize the detrimental effects of the ZEA feeding.

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