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Maes M.,Deakin University | Maes M.,State University Londrina | Maes M.,Chulalongkorn University | Bosmans E.,AML Laboratory | Kubera M.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Neuroendocrinology Letters | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: There is now evidence that specific subgroups of patients with Myalgie Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) suffer from a neuro-psychiatric-immune disorder. This study was carried out to delineate the expression of the activation markers CD38 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR on CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral blood lymphocytes in ME/CFS. METHODS: Proportions and absolute numbers of peripheral lymphocytes expressing CD3+, CD19+, CD4+, CD8+, CD38+ and HLA-DR+ were measured in ME/CFS (n=139), chronic fatigue (CF, n=65) and normal controls (n=40). RESULTS: The proportions of CD3+, CD8+, CD8+CD38+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ were significantly higher in ME/CFS patients than controls, while CD38+, CD8+CD38+, CD8+HLA-DR+ and CD38+HLA-DR+ were significantly higher in ME/CFS than CF. The percentage of CD 19+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly lower in ME/CFS and CF than in controls. There were highly significant inverse correlations between the increased expression of CD38+, especially that of CD8+CD38+, and the lowered CD4+/CD8+ ratio and CD19+ expression. There were no significant associations between the flow cytometric results and severity or duration of illness and peripheral blood biomarkers of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS, i.e. IgM responses to O&N modified epitopes), leaky gut (IgM or IgA responses to LPS of gut commensal bacteria), cytokines (interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α), neopterin, lysozyme and autoimmune responses to serotonin.


Maes M.,Maes Clinics at TRIA | Kubera M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Leunis J.-C.,Laboratory Ategis | Berk M.,Mental Health Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica | Year: 2013

Objective: Depression is accompanied by activation of immuno-inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways, and increased IgM/IgA responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative commensal bacteria. The latter suggests that bacterial translocation has caused IgM/IgA responses directed against LPS. Bacterial translocation may drive IO&NS responses. Method: To examine the associations between IgM/IgA responses to LPS and IO&NS measurements, including plasma/serum interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, neopterin, lysozyme, oxidized LDL (oxLDL) antibodies, peroxides, and IgM (auto)immune responses against malondialdehyde (MDA), azelaic acid, phophatidyl inositol (Pi), NO-tryptophan and NO-tyrosine in depressed patients and controls. Results: We found significant positive associations between IgM/IgA responses to LPS and oxLDL antibodies, IgM responses against MDA, azelaic acid, Pi, NO-tryptophan, and NO-tyrosine. The IgA responses to LPS were correlated with lysozyme. There were no significant positive correlations between the IgM/IgA responses to LPS and IL-1 and neopterin. Conclusion: The findings show that in depression there is an association between increased bacterial translocation and lysozyme production, an antibacterial compound, O&NS processes, and autoimmune responses directed against O&NS generated neoantigenic determinants. It is suggested that bacterial translocation may drive IO&NS pathways in depression and thus play a role in its pathophysiology. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Goovaerts I.G.F.,University of Antwerp | Leroy J.L.M.R.,University of Antwerp | Langbeen A.,University of Antwerp | Jorssen E.P.A.,University of Antwerp | And 2 more authors.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2012

Producing bovine in vitro embryos individually is a challenge as it generally leads to impaired embryo development. Earlier research optimised a single embryo in vitro production (IVP) protocol using serum, cumulus cells and oil during culture. As some of these factors are undesirable in certain circumstances, the present study investigated their necessity and possible interactions, and defined their role during single-embryo culture. Although the cumulus cell monolayer produced progesterone, it appeared not to be a key factor in supporting single-embryo development. Because in vitro culture in large medium volumes was shown to impair single-embryo development, two new oil-free culture protocols were tested. Using a 30-mL droplet of medium in 96-well plates with a small surface area resulted in comparable blastocyst rates to those obtained under oil. When serum was used, co-culture with cumulus cells seems necessary, leading to consistently high blastocyst rates. Finally, a serum-free, oil-free culture system using insulin, transferrin, selenium and BSA resulted in embryos with similar total cell numbers and apoptotic cell ratios, but blastocyst rates did not equal those obtained with serum and co-culture. This research additionally stresses the fact that specific interaction mechanisms between somatic cells and a developing in vitro embryo are far from unravelled. © CSIRO 2012.


Maes M.,Maes Clinics | Mihaylova I.,Maes Clinics | Kubera M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Uytterhoeven M.,AML Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2010

Background: Major depression is characterized by a decreased antioxidant status, an induction of the inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative (IO&NS) pathways and inflammatory-neurodegenerative (I&ND) pathways. This study examines two markers of oxidative stress in depression, i.e. plasma peroxides and serum oxidized LDL (oxLDL) antibodies. Methods: Blood was sampled in 54 patients with major depression (mean ± SD age = 43.5 ± 11.6 years) and 37 normal volunteers (43.6 ± 11.1 years). The severity of illness was measured by means of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Rating Scale was used to measure severity of "psychosomatic" symptoms in depression. Results: We found significantly higher plasma peroxides (p = 0.002) and serum oxLDL antibodies (p = 0.0002) in depressed patients as compared to normal controls. There was no significant correlation between both markers and both independently from each other predicted major depression. There were significant correlations between the oxLDL antibodies and the scores on two items of the FF scale, i.e. gastro-intestinal symptoms and headache. Discussion: The results show that major depression is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. These results further extend the IO&NS pathophysiology of major depression. Since increased peroxides and oxLDL antibodies are predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) and neurodegeneration, our findings suggest that IO&NS pathways are involved in the increased incidence of both CAD and neurodegeneration in depression. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Maes M.,Piyavate Hospital | Mihaylova I.,Piyavate Hospital | Kubera M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Uytterhoeven M.,AML Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Neuroendocrinology Letters | Year: 2011

BAKGROUND: Major depression and myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are two disorders accompanied by an upregulation of the inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative (IO&NS) pathways and a decreased antioxidant status. Moreover, depression is accompanied by disorders in inflammatory and neuroprogressive (IN-PRO) pathways. METHODS: This study examines whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in depression and in ME/CFS; GPX is an enzyme that reduces hydroperoxides by oxidizing glutathione and consequently protects the cells from oxidative damage. Blood was sampled in 39 patients with depression, 40 patients with ME/CFS and 24 normal volunteers. Whole blood was analysed for GPX activity using the Ransel assay (Randox). Severity of illness was measured by means of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Rating Scale (FF scale). RESULTS: We found that whole blood GPX activity was significantly (p=0.001) lower in depressed patients than in normal controls and that there were no significant differences between ME/CFS and controls. In depression and ME/CFS, there were significant and inverse relationships between GPX activity and the FF items, depressed mood and autonomic symptoms. In depression, there were significant and negative correlations between whole blood GPX and the HDRS score and autonomic symptoms. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters.

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