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Ephrem N.,Bahir Dar University | Tegegne F.,Bahir Dar University | Tegegne F.,Tottori University | Mekuriaw Y.,Bahir Dar University | Yeheyis L.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2015

The experiment was conducted to evaluate nutrient intake, digestibility and growth performance of Washera lambs fed natural pasture hay-based diet supplemented with graded levels of sweet blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) seed. Twenty male intact Washera lambs with average age of four months and initial body weight of 16.9±0.32kg (mean±SD) were used in 90 days feeding trial followed by 10 days digestibility trial. The design of the experiment was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications. The four supplement feeds were;150g wheat bran (WB) (control-T1), 150g WB+195g sweet lupin seed (SLS) (T2), 150g WB+245g SLS (T3) and 150g WB and 295g SLS (T4). Natural pasture hay was offered ad libitum. Digestibility trial was conducted at the end of the growth trial. Data were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS (version 9.2). Means were separated using Duncan's Multiple Range test. Correlation between nutrient intake, digestibility of nutrients and weight gain were analyzed using Pearson correlation procedure. Results showed that supplementation of SLS significantly increased total dry matter, crude protein and organic matter intakes. Supplementation of SLS improved the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter (P<0.05) and crude protein (P<0.001). However, the digestibility of NDF and ADF were not affected by supplementation (P 0.05). Average daily gain (ADG) was higher (P<0.001) for the SLS supplemented groups (61.8-89.1g/day). It was concluded that sweet blue lupin seed could serve as alternative CP supplement in natural pasture hay-based feeding of Washera sheep. Based on the biological performance of the experimental lambs (ADG and FCE values), T3 could be recommended for practical feeding of lambs if optimum performance is targeted. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Yeheyis L.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute | Yeheyis L.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Kijora C.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Wink M.,University of Heidelberg | Peters K.J.,Humboldt University of Berlin
Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section C Journal of Biosciences | Year: 2011

The effect of a traditional Ethiopian lupin processing method on the chemical composition of lupin seed samples was studied. Two sampling districts, namely Mecha and Sekela, representing the mid- and high-altitude areas of north-western Ethiopia, respectively, were randomly selected. Different types of traditionally processed and marketed lupin seed samples (raw, roasted, and fi nished) were collected in six replications from each district. Raw samples are unprocessed, and roasted samples are roasted using fi rewood. Finished samples are those ready for human consumption as snack. Thousand seed weight for raw and roasted samples within a study district was similar (P > 0.05), but it was lower (P < 0.01) for finished samples compared to raw and roasted samples. The crude fibre content of finished lupin seed sample from Mecha was lower (P < 0.01) than that of raw and roasted samples. However, the different lupin samples from Sekela had similar crude fibre content (P > 0.05). The crude protein and crude fat contents of finished samples within a study district were higher (P < 0.01) than those of raw and roasted samples, respectively. Roasting had no effect on the crude protein content of lupin seed samples. The crude ash content of raw and roasted lupin samples within a study district was higher (P < 0.01) than that of finished lupin samples of the respective study districts. The content of quinolizidine alkaloids of finished lupin samples was lower than that of raw and roasted samples. There was also an interaction effect between location and lupin sample type. The traditional processing method of lupin seeds in Ethiopia has a positive contribution improving the crude protein and crude fat content, and lowering the alkaloid content of the finished product. The study showed the possibility of adopting the traditional processing method to process bitter white lupin for the use as protein supplement in livestock feed in Ethiopia, but further work has to be done on the processing method and animal evaluation. © 2010 Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, Tübingen. Source

Bayu W.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute | Rethman N.F.G.,University of Pretoria | Hammes P.S.,University of Pretoria
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2012

Moisture deficit, poor soil fertility and lack of improved varieties constrained sorghum production in north-eastern Ethiopia. An experiment was conducted in 2002 at Kobo and Sirinka in north-eastern Ethiopia to study the possible effects of seedbed, nitrogen fertilizer and cultivar on the yield and N use efficiency (NUE) of sorghum. The experiment was carried out in a split-split plot design with seedbed (tied-ridge vs. flatbed planting) as main plots, N fertilizer (0, 40 and 80 kg N ha -1) as subplots and sorghum cultivars (Jigurti, ICSV111 and 76T1#23) as sub-sub plots, with three replications. At Kobo, the seedbed by cultivar interaction affected all parameters. Nitrogen fertilization increased biomass yield and NUE at both locations and grain yield at Sirinka. Cultivars showed different performance where ICSV111 and 76T1#23 were superior in grain yield, N uptake and concentration, N harvest index and NUE of grain (NUEg) compared with Jigurti. Thus, planting ICSV111 and 76T1#23 in tied-ridging and with N fertilization at Kobo and in flatbed and with N fertilization at Sirinka is recommended. This study revealed that tied-ridging is not a solution in all areas where moisture deficiency is a problem. Its effectiveness is affected by rainfall amount and soil type. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Bekele B.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research | Abate E.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute | Asefa A.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute | Dickinson M.,University of Nottingham
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

A survey of virus diseases and bacterial wilt was carried out in four major potato growing administrative zones in the west Amhara sub-region of Ethiopia in 2008. Leaf samples with symptoms suggestive of virus infection were collected from 38 randomly selected fields in 16 locations, whilst for bacterial wilt detection tuber and stem samples were collected from 23 and 12 fields in 15 and 12 locations, respectively. Disease incidences were visually assessed in the field and the identities of the pathogens were confirmed by laboratory testing using double antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA for viruses, and nitrocellulose membrane (NCM)-ELISA kits for Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition, an enrichment procedure was used to determine latent infection by R. solanacearum. Virus disease incidence varied from zero to 100% in different potato growing systems, whilst bacterial wilt incidence as high as 25% was recorded in farms in the west Gojam and north Gonder zones when assessed based on visual field symptoms. Results of laboratory testing for viruses confirmed the occurrence of at least five viruses, with Potato virus S (PVS) being the most widely distributed. Other viruses identified included Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus M (PVM), Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) and Potato virus Y (PVY), in order of importance. Mixed infections with two or more viruses were also detected. Potato virus A (PVA) was not detected in any of the samples tested. Latent infection by R. solanacearum was found in various potato fields, including experimental plots, farmers' seed potato production fields, suggesting the need to consider strict quarantine measure and restrict the free movement of seed tubers. Source

Vijverberg J.,Netherlands Institute of Ecology | Dejen E.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute | Getahun A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Nagelkerke L.A.J.,Wageningen University
Animal Biology | Year: 2012

Fish populations of nine Ethiopian freshwater lakes were quantitatively sampled with a standardized protocol, using multi-mesh gill nets. In total, 27 species were identified, but only 14 species were common. Based on the common species, the fish communities showed large differences in their species composition, except for Lake Abaya and Lake Chamo which were similar. Most fish species were observed in only one or two lakes. Compared with the information reported in literature the present study generally underestimated the species richness. The empirical model of Amarasinghe and Welcomme (2002) for African lakes was used to estimate fish species richness, which was compared with species presence reported in literature. Biodiversity in the two northern highland lakes is low, but not lower than the model estimate. Lake Tana has a high biodiversity which is close to what is estimated by the model, but three Rift Valley lakes have low biodiversity, lower than estimated by the model. There are also strong indications for the Rift Valley lakes that species richness was higher in the past because the species richness reported in the older literature was generally much higher than those observed by us in the present study and those reported in the more recent literature. Threats like overfishing, high sediment load and degradation of habitats were identified. It is recommended that Ethiopia should develop guidelines for fishery legislation and implement it through an enforcement agency. Moreover, catchments management should be practiced to save the water bodies and their fish communities. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2012. Source

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