Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute

Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute

Amhara Region, Ethiopia
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Tesema Z.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Tilahun M.,Debre Tabor University | Deribe B.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Lakew M.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2017

The study was conducted to investigate the effects of non-genetic factors on pre weaning growth, survivability, and litter size of Boer x Central Highland goats semi-intensively managed at on station. A total of 585 records from Boer cross goat were collected from 2009 to 2014 and analyzed. The overall mean±standard error for birth weight, one month, two month, three month weight and pre weaning growth rate of kids were 2.6±0.02 kg, 5.75±0.07 kg, 8.06±0.11kg, 9.63 kg and 77.4±1.6 g/day respectively. Pre weaning live weight and growth rate of kids were influenced by non genetic factors such as birth type, sex of kid, kid birth weight, season, year and age of dam.; but were not affected by genetic factors such as dam genotype and kid blood level. The overall survivability indices of Boer x Central Highland goats were 88.8±1.3%, 84.1±1.5%, 75.8±1.7%, 65.9±1.9%, and 62.7±2.0% up to one month, two month, three month (weaning age), six month and yearling age, respectively. Survival of kids was negatively correlated with litter size. Kids born from Central Highland goat had higher survival rate than those of kids born from 50% Boer x Central Highland goats. Survivability of kids with 50% blood level was better for kids with 75% blood level (86.6±1.6 vs. 77.8±3.7%) up to two month and (78.0±1.9 vs 70.4±4.1%) up to weaning age; but there was no difference for post weaning survivability. Survivability of kids increased linearly with birth weight. Kids born in the dry season had higher survival rate up to one month and two months than kids born in short and main rain seasons. However, post weaning survivability of kids born in main and short rain seasons was higher than for kids born in the dry season. The lowest survival rate was observed in 2011 and 2014. Maximum pre weaning and post weaning survival rate was observed for kids from 3 and 4 year old goats and minimum survival rate for kids from 2 year old goats. Pre weaning survival rate of kids increased with dam age up to 4 years and slightly decreased for kids from 5 year does. Sex had no effect on survivability of kids. Overall mean litter size of was 1.75±0.02 for Central Highland goats and 1.62±0.03 for Boer x Central Highland goats. Litter size of Central Highland goat was influenced by year of kidding. However, sex and season had no effect on litter size of both local and crossbred dams. Increasing litter size decreased kid survivability. © 2017, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

Ephrem N.,Bahir Dar University | Tegegne F.,Bahir Dar University | Tegegne F.,Tottori University | Mekuriaw Y.,Bahir Dar University | Yeheyis L.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2015

The experiment was conducted to evaluate nutrient intake, digestibility and growth performance of Washera lambs fed natural pasture hay-based diet supplemented with graded levels of sweet blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) seed. Twenty male intact Washera lambs with average age of four months and initial body weight of 16.9±0.32kg (mean±SD) were used in 90 days feeding trial followed by 10 days digestibility trial. The design of the experiment was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications. The four supplement feeds were;150g wheat bran (WB) (control-T1), 150g WB+195g sweet lupin seed (SLS) (T2), 150g WB+245g SLS (T3) and 150g WB and 295g SLS (T4). Natural pasture hay was offered ad libitum. Digestibility trial was conducted at the end of the growth trial. Data were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS (version 9.2). Means were separated using Duncan's Multiple Range test. Correlation between nutrient intake, digestibility of nutrients and weight gain were analyzed using Pearson correlation procedure. Results showed that supplementation of SLS significantly increased total dry matter, crude protein and organic matter intakes. Supplementation of SLS improved the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter (P<0.05) and crude protein (P<0.001). However, the digestibility of NDF and ADF were not affected by supplementation (P 0.05). Average daily gain (ADG) was higher (P<0.001) for the SLS supplemented groups (61.8-89.1g/day). It was concluded that sweet blue lupin seed could serve as alternative CP supplement in natural pasture hay-based feeding of Washera sheep. Based on the biological performance of the experimental lambs (ADG and FCE values), T3 could be recommended for practical feeding of lambs if optimum performance is targeted. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..

Yeheyis L.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute | Yeheyis L.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Kijora C.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Wink M.,University of Heidelberg | Peters K.J.,Humboldt University of Berlin
Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section C Journal of Biosciences | Year: 2011

The effect of a traditional Ethiopian lupin processing method on the chemical composition of lupin seed samples was studied. Two sampling districts, namely Mecha and Sekela, representing the mid- and high-altitude areas of north-western Ethiopia, respectively, were randomly selected. Different types of traditionally processed and marketed lupin seed samples (raw, roasted, and fi nished) were collected in six replications from each district. Raw samples are unprocessed, and roasted samples are roasted using fi rewood. Finished samples are those ready for human consumption as snack. Thousand seed weight for raw and roasted samples within a study district was similar (P > 0.05), but it was lower (P < 0.01) for finished samples compared to raw and roasted samples. The crude fibre content of finished lupin seed sample from Mecha was lower (P < 0.01) than that of raw and roasted samples. However, the different lupin samples from Sekela had similar crude fibre content (P > 0.05). The crude protein and crude fat contents of finished samples within a study district were higher (P < 0.01) than those of raw and roasted samples, respectively. Roasting had no effect on the crude protein content of lupin seed samples. The crude ash content of raw and roasted lupin samples within a study district was higher (P < 0.01) than that of finished lupin samples of the respective study districts. The content of quinolizidine alkaloids of finished lupin samples was lower than that of raw and roasted samples. There was also an interaction effect between location and lupin sample type. The traditional processing method of lupin seeds in Ethiopia has a positive contribution improving the crude protein and crude fat content, and lowering the alkaloid content of the finished product. The study showed the possibility of adopting the traditional processing method to process bitter white lupin for the use as protein supplement in livestock feed in Ethiopia, but further work has to be done on the processing method and animal evaluation. © 2010 Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, Tübingen.

Vijverberg J.,Netherlands Institute of Ecology | Dejen E.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute | Getahun A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Nagelkerke L.A.J.,Wageningen University
Animal Biology | Year: 2012

Fish populations of nine Ethiopian freshwater lakes were quantitatively sampled with a standardized protocol, using multi-mesh gill nets. In total, 27 species were identified, but only 14 species were common. Based on the common species, the fish communities showed large differences in their species composition, except for Lake Abaya and Lake Chamo which were similar. Most fish species were observed in only one or two lakes. Compared with the information reported in literature the present study generally underestimated the species richness. The empirical model of Amarasinghe and Welcomme (2002) for African lakes was used to estimate fish species richness, which was compared with species presence reported in literature. Biodiversity in the two northern highland lakes is low, but not lower than the model estimate. Lake Tana has a high biodiversity which is close to what is estimated by the model, but three Rift Valley lakes have low biodiversity, lower than estimated by the model. There are also strong indications for the Rift Valley lakes that species richness was higher in the past because the species richness reported in the older literature was generally much higher than those observed by us in the present study and those reported in the more recent literature. Threats like overfishing, high sediment load and degradation of habitats were identified. It is recommended that Ethiopia should develop guidelines for fishery legislation and implement it through an enforcement agency. Moreover, catchments management should be practiced to save the water bodies and their fish communities. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2012.

Vijverberg J.,Netherlands Institute of Ecology | Dejen E.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute | Getahun A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Nagelkerke L.A.J.,Wageningen University
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2014

Fish and zooplankton populations of nine Ethiopian freshwater lakes were quantitatively sampled along a North-South gradient. Differences in altitude and latitude resulted in a temperature gradient from North to South. We tested three hypotheses: (1) the degree of zooplanktivory decreases with water temperature, i.e. from North to South; (2) the degree of zooplanktivory increases with the abundance of large-bodied zooplankton; and (3) the pattern of zooplanktivory in eutrophic Ethiopian water bodies differs from other tropical and temperate water bodies. Proportions of zooplanktivory in the fish communities did not show a geographical trend, but mainly depended on fish species, zooplankton density and the availability of large-bodied cladocerans. The degree of zooplanktivory in eutrophic Ethiopian water bodies differs from other eutrophic water bodies, both temperate and tropical. In Ethiopia, the degree of zooplanktivory can be both low and high, in contrast with other tropical water bodies where zooplanktivory is generally low and with temperate eutrophic water bodies where it is generally high. As a result, predation pressure on zooplankton by fish varies dramatically amongst Ethiopian water bodies. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Bekele B.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research | Abate E.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute | Asefa A.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute | Dickinson M.,University of Nottingham
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

A survey of virus diseases and bacterial wilt was carried out in four major potato growing administrative zones in the west Amhara sub-region of Ethiopia in 2008. Leaf samples with symptoms suggestive of virus infection were collected from 38 randomly selected fields in 16 locations, whilst for bacterial wilt detection tuber and stem samples were collected from 23 and 12 fields in 15 and 12 locations, respectively. Disease incidences were visually assessed in the field and the identities of the pathogens were confirmed by laboratory testing using double antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA for viruses, and nitrocellulose membrane (NCM)-ELISA kits for Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition, an enrichment procedure was used to determine latent infection by R. solanacearum. Virus disease incidence varied from zero to 100% in different potato growing systems, whilst bacterial wilt incidence as high as 25% was recorded in farms in the west Gojam and north Gonder zones when assessed based on visual field symptoms. Results of laboratory testing for viruses confirmed the occurrence of at least five viruses, with Potato virus S (PVS) being the most widely distributed. Other viruses identified included Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus M (PVM), Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) and Potato virus Y (PVY), in order of importance. Mixed infections with two or more viruses were also detected. Potato virus A (PVA) was not detected in any of the samples tested. Latent infection by R. solanacearum was found in various potato fields, including experimental plots, farmers' seed potato production fields, suggesting the need to consider strict quarantine measure and restrict the free movement of seed tubers.

Bayu W.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute | Rethman N.F.G.,University of Pretoria | Hammes P.S.,University of Pretoria
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2012

Moisture deficit, poor soil fertility and lack of improved varieties constrained sorghum production in north-eastern Ethiopia. An experiment was conducted in 2002 at Kobo and Sirinka in north-eastern Ethiopia to study the possible effects of seedbed, nitrogen fertilizer and cultivar on the yield and N use efficiency (NUE) of sorghum. The experiment was carried out in a split-split plot design with seedbed (tied-ridge vs. flatbed planting) as main plots, N fertilizer (0, 40 and 80 kg N ha -1) as subplots and sorghum cultivars (Jigurti, ICSV111 and 76T1#23) as sub-sub plots, with three replications. At Kobo, the seedbed by cultivar interaction affected all parameters. Nitrogen fertilization increased biomass yield and NUE at both locations and grain yield at Sirinka. Cultivars showed different performance where ICSV111 and 76T1#23 were superior in grain yield, N uptake and concentration, N harvest index and NUE of grain (NUEg) compared with Jigurti. Thus, planting ICSV111 and 76T1#23 in tied-ridging and with N fertilization at Kobo and in flatbed and with N fertilization at Sirinka is recommended. This study revealed that tied-ridging is not a solution in all areas where moisture deficiency is a problem. Its effectiveness is affected by rainfall amount and soil type. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Gedif M.,Adet Agricultural Research Center | Yigzaw D.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute
Potato Journal | Year: 2014

Potato is one of the important crops grown in mid and high altitude areas of Ethiopia. Several potato genotypes have been introduced in different parts of this region. However, the stability and performance of these genotypes is not yet assessed. Therefore, a study to determine the effect of genotype, environment and their interaction for tuber yield and identify stable potato genotypes was conducted using eight potato genotypes in rainfed production season of years 2010 and 2011 at five potato growing locations in the region. Among the testing locations, the superior mean tuber yield (25.43 t/ha) was obtained at Adet while the inferior (13.89 t/ha) was at Injibara. Similarly, among the genotypes CIP- 396004.337 gave the highest mean tuber yield (25.66 t/ha), while CIP-395011.2 gave the lowest (17.78 t/ha). Combined ANOVA indicated that the main effect due to environments, genotypes and genotype by environment interaction were highly significant. The contribution of E, G and GEI to the total variation in tuber yield was about 47.11%, 8.83% and 44.07%, respectively. The GEI was further partitioned using GGE biplot model. The first two principal components obtained by singular value decomposition of the centered data of tuber yield explained 71.26% of the total variability caused by (G+GE). Out of these variations PC1 and PC2 accounted 51.24 and 20.02% variability, respectively. GGE biplot view of this study identified Serinka as ideal testing location and CIP- 396004.337 as ideal genotype for Amhara region in Ethiopia.

Yeheyis L.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute | Yeheyis L.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Kijora C.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Melaku S.,Haramaya University | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

A survey was conducted to generate holistic information on the production and utilization of local white lupin in two lupin growing districts, namely, Mecha and Sekela, representing mid and high altitude areas, respectively in North-western Ethiopia. During the survey, two types of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) techniques, namely, individual farmer interview (61 farmers from Mecha and 51 from Sekela) and group discussion (with 20 farmers from each district) were employed. There are significant differences (P<0.05) between the two study districts for the variables like total land holding, frequency of ploughing during lupin planting, days to maturity, lupin productivity, and number of days of soaking lupin in running water. However, there are no significant differences (P>0.05) between the two study districts for the variables like land allocated for lupin cultivation, lupin seed rate, lupin soaking at home, lupin consumption per family per week and proportion of lupin used for household consumption. The use of the crop as livestock feed is negligible due to its high alkaloid content. It is concluded that the local white lupin in Ethiopia is a valuable multipurpose crop which is being cultivated in the midst of very serious shortage of cropland. Its ability to maintain soil fertility and serve as a source of food in seasons of food scarcity makes it an important crop. However, its bitter taste due to its high alkaloid content remains to be a big challenge and any lupin improvement strategy has to focus on minimizing the alkaloid content of the crop.

PubMed | Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2012

In the mixed crop-livestock farming system of Ethiopia where crop residues are the major feed resources and concentrate supplement feeds are not common, home-grown legume protein sources can help to minimise the feed problem. A 69-day feeding experiment on sheep was conducted to evaluate the potential of sweet blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) cultivar Sanabor seed as a substitute for commercial concentrate supplement. Thirty yearling male intact Washera sheep with initial body weight of 21 1.38 kg (mean SD) were used. The design was a randomised complete block design with six replications. The five experimental supplement feeds were 453 g concentrate (T1), 342 g concentrate + 74 g lupin seed (T2), 228 g concentrate + 147 g lupin seed (T3), 116 g concentrate + 219 g lupin seed (T4) and 290 g lupin seed (T5) in dry matter basis to supplement around 100 g crude protein per day per animal. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in total dry matter, crude protein, ash and organic matter intakes among treatments. The average daily body weight gain for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 was 91, 79, 79, 87 and 74 g/day, respectively, and this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). It was concluded that blue lupin seed has a potential to substitute the commercial concentrate supplement feed in Ethiopia.

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