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Badger M.P.S.,University of Bristol | Lear C.H.,University of Bristol | Pancost R.D.,University of Bristol | Foster G.L.,University of Bristol | And 5 more authors.
Paleoceanography | Year: 2013

The development of a permanent, stable ice sheet in East Antarctica happened during the middle Miocene, about 14 million years (Myr) ago. The middle Miocene therefore represents one of the distinct phases of rapid change in the transition from the "greenhouse" of the early Eocene to the "icehouse" of the present day. Carbonate carbon isotope records of the period immediately following the main stage of ice sheet development reveal a major perturbation in the carbon system, represented by the positive δ13C excursion known as carbon maximum 6 ("CM6"), which has traditionally been interpreted as reflecting increased burial of organic matter and atmospheric pCO2 drawdown. More recently, it has been suggested that the δ13C excursion records a negative feedback resulting from the reduction of silicate weathering and an increase in atmospheric pCO2. Here we present high-resolution multi-proxy (alkenone carbon and foraminiferal boron isotope) records of atmospheric carbon dioxide and sea surface temperature across CM6. Similar to previously published records spanning this interval, our records document a world of generally low (~300 ppm) atmospheric pCO2 at a time generally accepted to be much warmer than today. Crucially, they also reveal a pCO2 decrease with associated cooling, which demonstrates that the carbon burial hypothesis for CM6 is feasible and could have acted as a positive feedback on global cooling. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Martill D.M.,University of Portsmouth | Vidovic S.U.,University of Portsmouth | Howells C.,Amgueddfa Cymru National Museum Wales | Nudds J.R.,University of Manchester
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Approximately 40% of a skeleton including cranial and postcranial remains representing a new genus and species of basal neotheropod dinosaur is described. It was collected from fallen blocks from a sea cliff that exposes Late Triassic and Early Jurassic marine and quasi marine strata on the south Wales coast near the city of Cardiff. Matrix comparisons indicate that the specimen is from the lithological Jurassic part of the sequence, below the first occurrence of the index ammonite Psiloceras planorbis and above the last occurrence of the Rhaetian conodont Chirodella verecunda. Associated fauna of echinoderms and bivalves indicate that the specimen had drifted out to sea, presumably from the nearby Welsh Massif and associated islands (St David's Archipelago). Its occurrence close to the base of the Blue Lias Formation (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian) makes it the oldest known Jurassic dinosaur and it represents the first dinosaur skeleton from the Jurassic of Wales. A cladistic analysis indicates basal neotheropodan affinities, but the specimen retains plesiomorphic characters which it shares with Tawa and Daemonosaurus. © 2016 Martill et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Dimitrova T.K.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Zodrow E.L.,Cape Breton University | Cleal C.J.,Amgueddfa Cymru National Museum Wales | Thomas B.A.,Aberystwyth University
Geological Journal | Year: 2010

The palynology of clastic samples from seven stratigraphical levels in the late Moscovian Sydney Mines Formation, exposed along the shore at Bras d'Or, Nova Scotia, has been investigated. Most of the samples were from roof shales of major coals; the one sample that was not yielded a much higher proportion of pollen derived from extra-basinal vegetation. The four stratigraphically lower roof shale samples yielded essentially similar palynological spectra, with 39±4% lycophytes, 9±4% sphenophylls, 23±4% tree-ferns, 12±4% other ferns and 5±3% cordaites. The palynology of the upper part of the investigated succession suggests a shift in vegetation towards one favouring more marattialean treeferns, cordaites and conifers, and fewer lycophytes. This correlates with changes in drainage patterns as the alluvial plain migrated seawards and thus changed water tables. No evidence was found to suggest significant climate change at this time. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Five species of Magelona have been previously reported from the seas surrounding the Arabian Peninsula: Magelona cornuta Wesenberg-Lund, M. obockensis Gravier, M. heteropoda Mohammed, M. pulchella Mohammed and M. papillicornis F. Müller. The type material of M. heteropoda, M. pulchella and M. obockensis are examined and redescriptions presented. Several features not recorded in the original descriptions andseveral corrections are made; as a result M. heteropoda is synonymised with M. obockensis. Magelona tinae is deemed to be morphologically similar to M. obockensis. Variations seen between the specimensmay be caused by a disparity in their size. Further examination of specimens of a similar size are required. Specimens recorded as M. cornuta and M. papillicornis from the Red Sea (Amoureux 1983) are examined. Material originally identified as M. papillicornis is found to be M. obockensis and that identified as M. obockensis is believed to be an undescribed species. The current terminology for magelonid pouchesis discussed. A key is provided for the 12 species currently known from the western Indian Ocean region. © 2010 Magnolia Press.


Cleal C.J.,Amgueddfa Cymru National Museum Wales | Thomas B.A.,Aberystwyth University
Taxon | Year: 2010

The provisions in the Code for naming plant fossil taxa have changed substantially over the years. The history of these changes reflects the tension between palaeobotanists (including palynologists studying plant microfossils) who need a flexible set of regulations, and the tendency for the Code to include nomenclatural regulations that constrain taxonomic decisions. The current Vienna Code now provides for plant fossils to be named as fossil taxa, which is a flexible taxonomic concept that should suit the needs of most palaeobotanists. However, the Vienna Code also incorporates the more restrictive concept of morphotaxa and most palaeobotanists seem to be under the misapprehension that plant fossils can only be named as morphotaxa. In our view, the concept of morphotaxa is logically flawed and unnecessary in practice, and should be removed from the Code.


Three new species of Dysponetus (Polychaeta: Chrysopetalidae) are described from the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean: Dysponetus ovalisetosus n. sp. from the Falkland Islands, Dysponetus bricklei n. sp. from South Georgia and Dy-sponetus antarcticus n. sp. from Antarctica are all characterized by having notochaetae that are oval in cross-section in contrast to the D-shape described for seven of the other species of Dysponetus. Dysponetus antarcticus n. sp. is the most distinct due to the combination of both a ventral cirrus on segment 3 and four eyes. Formerly mis-identified as Dysponetus bulbosus Hartmann-Schröder, 1982, it was discovered while clarifying the contradictory descriptions of that species pub-lished by Hartmann-Schröder in 1982 and 1986. Dysponetus bulbosus is re-described and newly figured. Dysponetus bricklei n. sp. and Dysponetus ovalisetosus n. sp. can be determined by comparing several characters including position of the median antenna, shape of the palps and cirri, and the number and shape of both the noto- and neurochaetae. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.


Ernst A.,University of Kiel | Buttler C.,Amgueddfa Cymru National Museum Wales
Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie - Abhandlungen | Year: 2012

Ten bryozoan species belonging to the Order Cystoporata are described from the Lower Devonian of the Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain. Three genera, with one species respectively, are new: Physallidopora cantabrica gen. nov. sp. nov., Dolichozoon ramosum gen. nov. sp. nov. and Hiberotrypa dubia gen. nov. sp. nov. Two additional species are new: Fistuliporidra triangulata sp. nov. and Fistuliporidra hibera sp. nov. The studied fauna shows palaeobiogeographic relations to the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland and North America. © 2012 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.


The intertidal and nearshore Nereididae of the Falkland Islands are detailed and a new species of Gymnonereisdescribed. The new species, Gymnonereis tenera sp. n., is the first record of the genus for the Falkland Islands. It is, so far, only known from a few intertidal locations in fine and muddy sands. Main distinguishing characters are: jaw teeth absent (in adults), 3 papillae in Area V-VI, falcigers absent, second ventral cirrus present throughout. Nereis atlanticaMcIntosh, 1885, known only from the description of a single specimen and one doubtful record from the Falkland Islands, is reviewed and transferred to Perinereison the basis of the presence of shield-shaped bars in Area VI of the proboscis and the absence of notopodial falcigers. A key to all seven species discussed is provided. © Teresa Darbyshire.


Micromaldane shackletoni n. sp. is described from the Falkland Islands in the southwest Atlantic. It is only the eighth species of Micromaldane to be recognized worldwide and is a new record of the genus for the Falkland Islands. The main characters of the new species are: up to 23 chaetigerous segments; nuchal organs as rounded ciliated pits with small central grooves anteriorly; two kinds of notochaetae: lancet-shaped chaetae and fine capillaries; neurochaetae as a single row of strongly curved, avicular uncini; a single pre-anal achaetigerous segment and anal plaque funnel-shaped with a crenated edge. This new species is a simultaneous hermaphrodite, only the second report of this reproductive mode in the genus along with Micromaldane androgyne Rouse, 1990. The stages of larval development from internal gametes to external intube development are also discussed. © 2013 Magnolia Press.


Zhou J.,CAS East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Mortimer K.,Amgueddfa Cymru National Museum Wales
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2013

A description of a new species of Magelona, M. parochilis sp. nov. is presented, based on material collected from the Yellow Sea, China. The new species belongs to the 'Magelona mirabilis group' of magelonids, possessing a rounded prostomium, lacking prostomial horns and specialized chaetae on chaetiger 9. Paired anteriorly open pouches are present between chaetigers 11-12 and 14-15 (occasionally between chaetigers 17-18). Magelona parochilis sp. nov. inhabits intertidal zones and shallow subtidal waters characterized by sandy mud. © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2013.

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