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Thousand Oaks, CA, United States

Amgen is an American multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California. Located in the Conejo Valley, Amgen is the world's largest independent biotechnology firm. In 2013, the company's largest selling product lines were Neulasta/Neupogen, two closely related drugs used to prevent infections in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy; and Enbrel, a tumor necrosis factor blocker used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Other products include Epogen, Aranesp, Sensipar/Mimpara, Nplate, Vectibix, Prolia and XGEVA. Wikipedia.

Hall M.P.,Amgen Inc.
Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals | Year: 2014

Historically, since the metabolism of administered peptide/protein drugs ("biotherapeutics") has been expected to undergo predictable pathways similar to endogenous proteins, comprehensive biotherapeutic metabolism studies have not been widely reported in the literature. However, since biotherapeutics have rapidly evolved into an impressive array of eclectic modalities, there has been a shift toward understanding the impact of metabolism on biotherapeutic development. For biotherapeutics containing non-native chemical linkers and other moieties besides natural amino acids, metabolism studies are critical as these moieties may impart undesired toxicology. For biotherapeutics that are composed solely of natural amino acids, where end-stage peptide and amino acid catabolites do not generally pose toxicity concerns, the understanding of biotherapeutic biotransformation, defined as in vivo modifications such as peripherally generated intermediate circulating catabolites prior to end-stage degradation or elimination, may impact in vivo stability and potency/clearance. As of yet, there are no harmonized methodologies for understanding biotherapeutic biotransformation and its impact on drug development, nor is there clear guidance from regulatory agencies on how and when these studies should be conducted. This review provides an update on biotherapeutic biotransformation studies and an overview of lessons learned, tools that have been developed, and suggestions of approaches to address issues. Biotherapeutic biotransformation studies, especially for certain modalities, should be implemented at an early stage of development to 1) understand the impact on potency/clearance, 2) select the most stable candidates or direct protein re-engineering efforts, and 3) select the best bioanalytical technique(s) for proper drug quantification and subsequent pharmacokinetic profiling and exposure/response assessment. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) is a TNF ligand superfamily member that is essential for the formation, activation, and function of osteoclasts. RANKL functions via its cognate receptor RANK, and it is inhibited by the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). In skeletal metastases, the ratio ofRANKLtoOPGis upregulated, which leads to increased osteoclast-mediated bone destruction. These changes in the bone microenvironment not only compromise the structural integrity of bone, leading to severe clinical morbidities, but have also been implicated in establishment of de novo bone metastasis and the progression of existing skeletal tumors. Evaluation of RANKL inhibitors, including the fully human anti- RANKL antibody denosumab, in patients with cancer has shown reductions in tumor-induced bone resorption activity and successful management of skeletal complications of bone metastases. RANKL also functions as a major paracrine effector of the mitogenic action of progesterone in mouse mammary epithelium, and it has a role in ovarian hormone-dependent expansion and regenerative potential of mammary stem cells. RANKL inhibition attenuates mammary tumorigenesis and pulmonary metastases in mouse models. These data suggest that the contribution of progesterone to increased mammary cancer incidence is mediated, at least in part, by RANKL-dependent changes in the mammary epithelium; RANKL also directly promotes distant metastases. In summary, the antitumor and antimetastatic effects of RANKL inhibition can occur by at least 2 distinct mechanisms, one in the bone via osteoclast-dependent effects, and the second via direct effects on the tumor cells of various origins and/or mammary epithelium. ©2011 AACR.

Purpose: To clarify relationships among various types of target-mediated disposition (TMD) models including the Michaelis-Menten, quasi-steady-state (Qss), and rapid binding models and propose measures for the closeness of some models as approximations to the general TMD model (Mager and Jusko, J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 28(6):507-532, 2001). Methods: Based on the classic singular perturbation theory by selecting appropriate scales of time, we derive requirements with which the Michaelis-Menten and Qss models are suitable approximations. Under the Qss assumption we show that other simplifications of the general TMD model can be similarly obtained as the Michaelis-Menten and Qss models. We compare these models by simulations using known application examples. Results: The Michaelis-Menten and Qss models are direct simplifications of the general TMD model and, moreover, suitable approximations if certain specific requirements on the parameters are met. Conclusions: As a first attempt to quantify the closeness of some simplifications to the general TMD model, our work should provide a more rigorous basis for the theoretical and practical research of TMD models, which are important for investigating the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of many biological compounds. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Recombinant immunoglobulins comprise an important class of human therapeutics. Although specific immunoglobulins can be purposefully raised against desired antigen targets by various methods, identifying an immunoglobulin clone that simultaneously possesses potent therapeutic activities and desirable manufacturing-related attributes often turns out to be challenging. The variable domains of individual immunoglobulins primarily define the unique antigen specificities and binding affinities inherent to each clone. The primary sequence of the variable domains also specifies the unique physicochemical properties that modulate various aspects of individual immunoglobulin life cycle, starting from the biosynthetic steps in the endoplasmic reticulum, secretory pathway trafficking, secretion, and the fate in the extracellular space and in the endosome-lysosome system. Because of the diverse repertoire of immunoglobulin physicochemical properties, some immunoglobulin clones' intrinsic properties may manifest as intriguing cellular phenotypes, unusual solution behaviors, and serious pathologic outcomes that are of scientific and clinical importance. To gain renewed insights into identifying manufacturable therapeutic antibodies, this paper catalogs important intracellular and extracellular phenotypes induced by various subsets of immunoglobulin clones occupying different niches of diverse physicochemical repertoire space. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors that make certain immunoglobulin clones desirable or undesirable for large-scale manufacturing and therapeutic use are summarized. © 2013 Haruki Hasegawa.

Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, recognized to be one of the most important defences of the human body against an inappropriate immune response, have recently gained attention from those outside immunology thanks to the compelling evidence for their capability to exert non-canonical immune functions in a variety of tissues in health and disease. The recent discovery of the differences between tissue-resident Treg cells and those derived from lymphoid organs is affecting the mindset of many investigators now questioning the broad applicability of observations originally based on peripheral blood/lymphoid organ cells. So far, the best characterized 'Treg flavour' comes from studies focused on their role in suppressing adipose tissue inflammation and obesity-driven insulin resistance. Adipose tissue derived Treg cells are distinct from their counterparts in lymphoid organs based on their transcriptional profile, T-cell receptor repertoire, and cytokine and chemokine receptor expression pattern. These cells are abundant in visceral adipose tissue of lean mice but their number is greatly reduced in insulin-resistant animal models of obesity. Interestingly, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ expression by visceral adipose tissue Treg cells is crucial for their accumulation, phenotype and function in the fat and surprisingly necessary for complete restoration of insulin sensitivity in obese mice by the anti-diabetic drug Pioglitazone. This review surveys recent findings relating to the unique phenotype and function of adipose tissue-resident Treg cells, speculates on the nature of their dynamics in lean and obese mouse models, and analyses their potential therapeutic application in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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