Adegboye O.A.,Qatar University |
Adegboye M.,American University of Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2017
Leishmaniasis is the third most common vector-borne disease and a very important protozoan infection. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most common types of leishmaniasis infectious diseases with up to 1.2 million occurrences of new cases each year worldwide. A dynamic transmission multivariate time series model was applied to the data to account for overdispersion and evaluate the effects of three environmental layers as well as seasonality in the data. Furthermore, ecological niche modeling was used to study the geographically suitable conditions for cutaneous leishmaniasis using temperature, precipitation and altitude as environmental layers, together with the leishmaniasis presence data. A retrospective analysis of the cutaneous leishmaniasis spatial data in Afghanistan between 2003 and 2009 indicates a steady increase from 2003 to 2007, a small decrease in 2008, and then another increase in 2009. An upward trend and regularly repeating patterns of highs and lows were observed related to the months of the year, which suggests seasonality effect in the data. Two peaks were observed in the disease occurrence-January to March and September to December-which coincide with the cold period. Ecological niche modelling indicates that precipitation has the greatest contribution to the potential distribution of leishmaniasis. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
News Article | December 14, 2016
A Nigerian local community program that prevents conflicts between Christians and Muslims, and uses sports to prevent young people from joining terrorist groups, has won the annual prize for Inter-religious peacebuilding from the London-based international Peace Direct organization. The winners were announced at a ceremony in London and Washington, DC on Friday, December 9, 2016. The American University of Nigeria-led Adamawa Peacemakers Initiative (AUN-API) was one of three winners out of 244 entrants from 61 countries. The Tomorrow’s Peacebuilders Award includes a $10,000 grant to be used to further the recipients’ peace work. “We are deeply honored by this recognition,” said Dr. Margee Ensign, president of the American University of Nigeria, which created API and provides overall direction. “We’re grateful to all members of API, our interfaith clergy and other leaders of API, but especially Abdulahi Bello, who coordinates our Peace Through Sports program.” According to one of the judges: “The jury was extremely impressed by (API’s) application and the way that API’s programs respond to the needs of the community and show both long-term sustainability and innovation in approach.” One innovative aspect of the program is the Peace Through Sports, where young men and women join teams to play soccer, basketball and volleyball. Said Dr. Ensign: “The teams are unity teams-with Christian and Muslim young people playing together. They learn to respect and to cooperate with one another, to appreciate and value beliefs different than their own.” One measure of program success is the number of young men who’ve been radicalized and joined the insurgency. So far that number is zero. According to Dr. Ensign: “Numerous participants told me that ‘It was either Boko Haram or you.’” AUN also coordinates education programs and job training for young people in the sports program, as illiteracy and chronic unemployment are key contributors to the region’s instability. In addition to the Peace Through Sports program, AUN-API conducts mediation sessions in communities, teaches conflict resolution techniques, provides literacy instruction for out of school children, and feeds thousands of people displaced by violence. Dr. Ensign, who also chairs API, said that the AUN-API’s approach is scalable and replicable, and the key elements, which rely heavily on local knowledge and expertise, have already been replicated elsewhere, especially in places that are hard for government authorities and humanitarian organizations to reach. Another advantage is that the community expertise at the heart of AUN-API is sustainable and can evolve in response to challenges inside and outside the community. The longer-term vision, according to Dr. Ensign, is to spread the model throughout the wider region and country, wherever there is conflict, at-risk youth and the need for local empowerment. About the AUN-led Adamawa Peacemakers Initiative AUN created the American University of Nigeria-Adamawa Peacemakers Initiative (AUN-API) in 2010, a peace initiative consisting of local leaders, traditional rulers and religious leaders, working to improve the quality of life of local and displaced Nigerians. Members of API identify vulnerable youth from their communities who are then educated and trained by AUN. The members of API are local leaders who are deeply involved with and embedded in their communities. They have the best knowledge of which youth are the most vulnerable to violence and to groups like Boko Haram. Through locally led literacy and technology training, economic development, peace through sports programs and more, AUN and AUN-API are facilitating an environment for peace, promoting women’s empowerment and socioeconomic equality, engaging and preventing the radicalization of local youth and combatting violent extremism in Yola. AUN and AUN-API’s integrated approach marries peacebuilding, literacy, vocational training, and women’s empowerment to ensure a sustainable transformation of the community. At the height of the Boko Haram crisis AUN-API fed 276,000 internally displaced people. About the American University of Nigeria The American University of Nigeria (AUN) is located in Yola, Adamawa state in northeastern Nigeria. AUN enrolls over 1,500 undergraduate, graduate and nursery to high school students, representing Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, Rwanda, Uganda and the United States, and an international faculty and staff from 35 countries. A law school opened in September 2016. Founded by former Nigerian Vice-President Atiku Abubakar with a mission to be a development university, AUN is deeply involved in improving the quality of life for people outside its gate. AUN’s programs address food security, job training and entrepreneurship, literacy education for out of school children, and emergency feeding programs for families displaced by violence. AUN is also one of the most technologically sophisticated universities on the continent with an award-winning e-library, leveraging technology to solve existing challenges, particularly those related to education. The university is committed to being a catalyst and an agent of economic development. Peace Direct is a charity based in London, England which supports grassroots peacebuilders in areas of conflict. Peace Direct focuses on supporting grassroots peacebuilders who are local to the conflict and have a clear vision of what needs to be achieved. The organization funds this work, promotes it and shares lessons learned. In 12 years, Peace Direct has supported more than 40 local peacemaking organizations around the world.
Malace S.P.,Duke University |
Melnitchouk W.,Jefferson Lab |
Psaker A.,American University of Nigeria
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2011
Combining data on unpolarized and polarized inclusive proton structure functions, we perform the first detailed study of quark-hadron duality in individual helicity-1/2 and 3/2 virtual photoproduction cross sections. We find that duality is realized more clearly in the helicity-1/2 channel, with duality-violating corrections 10% over the entire nucleon resonance region, while larger, 20% corrections are found in the helicity-3/2 sector. The results are in general agreement with quark model expectations, and suggest that data above the Δ resonance region may be used to constrain both spin-averaged and spin-dependent parton distributions. © 2011 American Physical Society.
Salatian A.,American University of Nigeria
International Journal of Smart Home | Year: 2010
Building operators need to interpret the high volumes of noisy data generated from the environmental sensors in their buildings. In this paper we propose a software architecture which processes the building monitor data to provide enhanced decision support in the form of assessments and accurate summaries to building operators in order to improve the quality of building performance. Our architecture has been tested on over 8 days worth of continuous data and the results are very encouraging.
Adepoju F.,American University of Nigeria |
Arshak K.,University of Limerick
SAS 2016 - Sensors Applications Symposium, Proceedings | Year: 2016
A detailed analysis of scientific work done in transforming radio frequency (RF) signals for tracking an embedded object with special reference to telemetry capsules in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is presented in this paper. We fully discuss the mathematics of the necessary stages for transformation from signal to hexadecimal, decimal, to distance up to the stage where the path trajectory is computed. Experimental validation is accomplished by using RF signals at 433MHz, Analog Devices 8052 based microcontroller with ADC capability and a means of transferring the received signal strength intensity voltage converted to digital, from the microcontroller to the personal computer. The primary focus of this paper is a proven practical way of achieving the above tasks by using basic mathematical and computing principles. Consequently, our algorithm-based tracking results for experiments in a liquid medium yielded an average error of less than 21%. These results were validated with the Bland-Altman plots using semi-automated manual measurements as gold standard. © 2016 IEEE.
Hamza A.,American University of Nigeria
Structural Chemistry | Year: 2010
The molecular conformations of jet-cooled 2-methylindan (2MI) and 2-phenylindan (2PI) have been studied using resonant-enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy in combination with ab initio calculations. Both axial (2MI ax) and equatorial (2MI eq) conformers of 2MI have been observed. A 2MI eq/2MI ax conformer ratio of 2.3 was estimated at 298 K, leading to the energy difference, of 0.49 kcal/mol. Ab initio calculations predicted three stable conformers of 2PI: Two equatorial conformers (2PI eq0 and 2PI eq90), and one axial conformer (2PI ax). Only the axial conformer of 2PI (2PI ax) was experimentally observed. The indan ring of 2PI ax is slightly more planar than the indan rings of the two equatorial conformers of 2PI because of the intramolecular C sp2-H/π interactions in 2PI ax. The equatorial conformers of 2PI relax to the more stable axial conformer because of the high pre-expansion temperature (383 K), and relatively low barrier (1.68 kcal/mol) to axial-equatorial interconversion. The barrier (2.33 kcal/mol) to axial-equatorial interconversion in 2MI is high enough to prevent conformational relaxation at the pre-expansion temperature of 298 K. Intramolecular C-H/π interactions are found to be more important in determining the conformational preference of 2PI than 2MI; this can be attributed to the higher acidity of the C sp2-H bond than that of C sp3-H bond. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Hamza A.,American University of Nigeria
Structural Chemistry | Year: 2010
The conformations and exciton couplings in 5,6,11,12-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclooctene (THDC) have been studied using resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy in a supersonic jet expansion. It has been estimated from the spectral analysis that 90% of THDC exists in the twist-boat (TB) conformation; the chair (C) conformer constitutes the remaining 10%. Most of the vibronic activity in the spectrum of THDC is associated with the symmetric flapping of the aromatic rings of the TB conformer. The observed S 1/S 2 exciton splitting of the TB conformer is 100 cm -1. The S 1/S 2 transition of the C conformer is found to be forbidden. The exciton splittings of the C and TB conformers were estimated by the spectral analysis of two deuterated isotopomers of THDC. The estimated exciton splittings of the C and TB conformers are 14.7 and 101.9 cm -1, respectively. The supramolecular model of bichromophores with identical chromophores at the CIS/6-31+G(d)//HF/6-31+G(d) level of theory predicted electronic coupling energies that are very close to the experimental exciton coupling energies. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.
Olowu D.,American University of Nigeria
Sahara J | Year: 2015
This article attempts to establish the key contribution by people of faith to the global HIV pandemic response, using Lesotho as a case study. Particular focus is paid to the work of selected religious organisations in Lesotho in this context, assessing their capacities to coordinate an effective HIV and AIDS action at the grassroots levels through education, health care, development, and social service activities. Empirical evaluations and findings regarding the level and quality of faith-based engagement in this field establish the basic premise of this article, namely, that faith-based organisations are contributing energy, expertise, and experience in order to achieve the commitment of the global commitment to advance universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, and support. Although the article is particularly focused on the Lesotho context, its tremendous implications for simulated studies and approaches across Sub-Saharan Africa are accentuated. © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.
Watson D.D.,American University of Nigeria
Journal of Development Studies | Year: 2014
This article considers the inequality in the cross-country distribution of hunger using multiple ethical underpinnings. Under sovereign equality, each nation-state receives equal weighting, leading to the conclusion that hunger should be concentrated in a few large countries. Under the democratic ethic, individuals receive equal weighting and the global distribution of hungry people is irrelevant. Inequality aversion deliberately prefers equal levels of hunger across countries. These ideals are presented in a general social welfare function and compared to the actual changes in hunger during 1991-2001. The distribution of food aid to reduce both hunger and hunger inequality are considered. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Nwaigwe A.F.,American University of Nigeria |
Koedinger K.R.,Carnegie Mellon University
EDM 2011 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Educational Data Mining | Year: 2011
In a previous study on a physics dataset from the Andes tutor, we found that the simple location heuristic was better at making error attribution than the simple temporal heuristic when evaluated on the learning curve standard. In this study, we investigated the generality of performance of the simple location heuristic and the simple temporal heuristic in the math domain to see if previous results generalized to other Intelligent Tutoring System domains. In support of past results, we found that the simple location heuristic provided a better goodness of fit to the learning curve standard, that is, it was better at performing error attribution than the simple temporal heuristic. One observation is that for tutors where the knowledge components can be determined by the interface location in which an action appears, using the simple location heuristic is likely to show better results than the simple temporal heuristic. It is possible that the simple temporal heuristic is better in situations where the different problem subgoals can be associated with a single location. However, our prior results with a physics data set indicated that even in such situations the simple location heuristic may be better. Further research should explore this issue.