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Gage J.C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Nation J.G.,University of Calgary | Gao S.,Alberta Cervical Cancer Screening Program | Castle P.E.,American Society for Clinical Pathology
Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: No evidence-based clinical management recommendations exist for women with an endocervical curettage (ECC) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1) result when the concurrent cervical biopsy is not high-grade. For women with these pathologic findings, we assessed their short-term risk of high-grade histopathologic diagnosis in the Calgary Health Region where ECC was routinely performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed pathology and colposcopy reports from 1,902 referral colposcopies where both ECC and biopsies were normal or CIN 1. We calculated the short-term risk of CIN 2 or more severe (CIN 2+) detected 12 to 24 months after colposcopy. Pearson χ tests or Fisher exact tests were used to compare risks of a CIN 2+ diagnosis between combinations of test results and strata of risk factors. RESULTS: The short-term risk of CIN 2+ was the same after a CIN 1 biopsy and CIN 1 ECC (4.9% of 1,389 vs 5.0% of 359, respectively, p = .37). Compared with low-grade referral cytology, the risk of CIN 2+ after high-grade cytology was elevated significantly for CIN 1 ECC (13.3% vs 3.3%, p < .01) and nonsignificantly for CIN 1 biopsy (7.1% vs 4.6%, p = .12). CONCLUSIONS: After low-grade cytology, the short-term risk of a high-grade histologic diagnosis in women with either CIN 1 ECC or biopsy is equivalent, suggesting similar management. A CIN 1 ECC may warrant different management in the context of high-grade referral cytology. © 2013, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology.


Castle P.E.,American Society for Clinical Pathology | de Sanjose S.,Institute Catala Doncologia Catalan Institute Of Oncology Ico Lhospitalet Of Llobregat | de Sanjose S.,CIBER ISCIII | Qiao Y.-L.,Peking Union Medical College | And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

The discovery of the necessary cause of cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), has led to important technological advances, including the development of molecular tests for HPV to identify women with cervical precancerous lesions. HPV testing has proven to be more sensitive and more reliable, albeit less specific, for detection of cervical precancer than cytologic methods of detection. As the result, HPV testing can reduce the incidence of cervical cancer within 4-5 years and reduce the mortality due to cervical cancer within 8 years compared to cytology. Additionally, a negative HPV test provides greater reassurance against cervical cancer than a negative Pap test. HPV testing, because of its attributes, is useful for screening out low-risk women who do not need further intervention for 5 or more years. Thus, HPV testing can shift the emphasis of the use of Pap testing or any other more specific diagnostic test from frequent use in the entire population to the ̃10% subset of women who tested positive for the causal factor, HPV. Here, we highlight the current and future status of the introduction of HPV testing into routine cervical cancer screening. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Keller M.J.,Yeshiva University | Burk R.D.,Yeshiva University | Xie X.,Yeshiva University | Anastos K.,Yeshiva University | And 9 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2012

Context: US cervical cancer screening guidelines for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected women 30 years or older have recently been revised, increasing the suggested interval between Papanicolaou (Pap) tests from 3 years to 5 years among those with normal cervical cytology (Pap test) resultswhotest negative for oncogenic human papilloma-virus (HPV). Whether a 3-year or 5-year screening interval could be used in HIV-infected women who are cytologically normal and oncogenic HPV-negative is unknown. Objective: To determine the risk of cervical precancer or cancer defined cytologically (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or greater [HSIL+]) or histologically (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater [CIN-2+]), as 2 separate end points, in HIV-infected women and HIV-uninfected women who at baseline had a normal Pap test result and were negative for oncogenic HPV. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants included 420 HIV-infected women and 279 HIV-uninfected women with normal cervical cytology at their enrollment in a multi-institutional US cohort of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2002, with follow-up through April 30, 2011. Semi-annual visits at 6 clinical sites included Pap testing and, if indicated, cervical biopsy. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens from enrollment were tested for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction. The primary analysis was truncated at 5 years of follow-up. Main Outcome Measure: Five-year cumulative incidence of cervical precancer and cancer. Results: No oncogenic HPV was detected in 369 (88% [95% CI,84%-91%]) HIV-infected women and 255 (91% [95% CI, 88%-94%]) HIV-uninfected women with normal cervical cytology at enrollment. Among these oncogenic HPV-negative women, 2 cases of HSIL+ were observed; an HIV-uninfected woman and an HIV-infected woman with a CD4 cell count of 500 cells/μL or greater. Histologic data were obtained from 4 of the 6 clinical sites. There were 6 cases of CIN-2+ in 145 HIV-uninfected women (cumulative incidence, 5% [95% CI, 1%-8%]) and 9 cases in 219 HIV-infected women (cumulative incidence, 5% [95% CI, 2%-8%]). This included 1 case of CIN-2+ in 44 oncogenic HPV-negative HIV-infected women with CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μL (cumulative incidence,2% [95% CI, 0%-7%]), 1 case in 47 women with CD4 cell count of 350 to 499 cells/μL (cumulative incidence, 2% [95% CI, 0%-7%]), and 7 cases in 128 women with CD4 cell count of 500 cells/μL or greater (cumulative incidence, 6% [95% CI, 2%-10%]). One HIV-infected and 1 HIV-uninfected woman had CIN-3, but none had cancer. Conclusion: The 5-year cumulative incidence of HSIL+ and CIN-2+ was similar in HIV-infected women and HIV-uninfected women who were cytologically normal and oncogenic HPV-negative at enrollment. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Gage J.C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Sadorra M.,Roche Molecular Systems | LaMere B.J.,Kaiser Permanente | Kail R.,Roche Molecular Systems | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

The cobas human papillomavirus (HPV) test (cobas) was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and identifies HPV16 and HPV18 separately as well as detecting a pool of 11 HR-HPV genotypes (HPV31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -68) and also HPV66. We compared cobas, Linear Array (LA), and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assays for detection of carcinogenic HPV DNA, and cobas and LA for detection of HPV16 and HPV18 DNA, among the first 1,852 women enrolled in the HPV Persistence and Progression Cohort (PaP Cohort) study. Specimens were tested by all 3 assays 1 year after an HC2-positive result. In 1,824 specimens with cobas results, cobas had an 85.9% agreement with HC2 and 91.0% agreement with LA for carcinogenic HPV detection. When results between cobas and HC2 disagreed, cobas tended to call more women HPV positive (P < 0.01). Categorizing cobas and LA results hierarchically according to cancer risk (HPV16, HPV18, other carcinogenic HPV genotypes, or carcinogen negative), there was a 90% agreement for all categories of HPV (n = 1,824). We found good agreement between the two U.S. FDA-approved HPV tests, with discrepancies between the two assays due to specific characteristics of the individual assays. Additional studies are needed to compare HC2 and cobas for detecting and predicting CIN3 to understand the clinical implications of the discrepant test results between the two tests. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Katki H.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Kinney W.K.,Kaiser Permanente | Fetterman B.,Kaiser Permanente | Lorey T.,Kaiser Permanente | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Concurrent testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cytology (co-testing) is an approved alternative to cytology alone in women aged 30 years and older. We aimed to assess the safety in routine clinical practice of 3-year screening intervals for women testing negative for HPV with normal cytology and to assess if co-testing can identify women at high risk of cervical cancer or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) or worse over 5 years. Methods: We assessed the 5-year cumulative incidence, starting in 2003-05, of cervical cancer and CIN3 or worse for 331 818 women aged 30 years and older who enrolled in co-testing at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (Berkeley, CA, USA) and had adequate enrolment co-test results. Follow-up continued until Dec 31, 2009. We defined cumulative incidence to include prevalence at enrolment and incidence after enrolment. Prevalence at enrolment was defined as the ratio of women diagnosed with each outcome on the biopsy visit immediately after their enrolment screening visit to the total enrolled women. At screening visits only HPV test and Pap smear samples were collected, and at biopsy visits colposcopically directed biopsies were taken. To estimate post-enrolment incidence, we used Weibull survival models. Findings: In 315 061 women negative by HPV testing, the 5-year cumulative incidence of cancer was 3·8 per 100 000 women per year, slightly higher than for the 306 969 who were both negative by HPV and Pap testing (3·2 per 100 000), and half the cancer risk of the 319 177 who were negative by Pap testing (7·5 per 100 000). 313 465 (99·5%) women negative by HPV testing had either normal cytology or equivocal abnormalities. Abnormal cytology greatly increased cumulative incidence of CIN3 or worse over 5 years for the 16 757 positive by HPV testing (12·1% vs 5·9%; p<0·0001). By contrast, although statistically significant, abnormal cytology did not increase 5-year risk of CIN3 or worse for women negative by HPV testing to a substantial level (0·86% vs 0·16%; p=0·004). 12 208 (73%) of the women positive by HPV testing had no cytological abnormality, and these women had 258 (35%) of 747 CIN3 or worse, 25 (29%) of 87 cancers, and 17 (63%) of 27 adenocarcinomas. Interpretation: For women aged 30 years and older in routine clinical practice who are negative by co-testing (both HPV and cytology), 3-year screening intervals were safe because a single negative test for HPV was sufficient to reassure against cervical cancer over 5 years. Incorporating HPV testing with cytology also resulted in earlier identification of women at high risk of cervical cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. Testing for HPV without adjunctive cytology might be sufficiently sensitive for primary screening for cervical cancer. Funding: Intramural Research Program of the US National Cancer Institute/NIH/DHHS, and the American Cancer Society. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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