Burnham A.K.,American Shale Oil LLC
Thermochimica Acta | Year: 2014
The derivation of chemical kinetics by the thermal analysis community has a checkered past, with numerous papers published using substandard methodology. The ICTAC kinetics committee has taken on the task of upgrading the quality of thermal analysis kinetics through a series of workshops and publications. However, the resulting publications from those efforts by design do not cover all important aspects in detail. This paper explores two issues in greater depth'the optimum selection of heating rates for kinetic determination based on statistical error considerations and the importance of using a diverse set of thermal histories, including but not limited to isothermal and linear heating, to better constrain and validate global models. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vyazovkin S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham |
Burnham A.K.,American Shale Oil LLC |
Criado J.M.,University of Seville |
Perez-Maqueda L.A.,University of Seville |
And 2 more authors.
Thermochimica Acta | Year: 2011
The present recommendations have been developed by the Kinetics Committee of the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (ICTAC). The recommendations offer guidance for reliable evaluation of kinetic parameters (the activation energy, the pre-exponential factor, and the reaction model) from the data obtained by means of thermal analysis methods such as thermogravimetry (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The recommendations cover the most common kinetic methods, model-free (isoconversional) as well as model-fitting. The focus is on the problems faced by various kinetic methods and on the ways how these problems can be resolved. Recommendations on making reliable kinetic predictions are also provided. The objective of these recommendations is to help a non-expert with efficiently performing analysis and interpreting its results. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Bumham A.,American Shale Oil LLC |
Fowler T.,Royal Dutch Shell |
Oilfield Review | Year: 2010
The formation of oil shales, the methods by which they are exploited in various parts of the world, and the techniques currently being developed for tapping the energy they contain, are discussed. The shales are studied to attain source-rock status, achieving full maturity and expelling their oil and natural gas, which then migrate, and under the proper conditions, accumulate and become trapped. The shale, which occurs as 50 beds of organic-rich shallow marine sediments alternating with biomicritic limestone, is produced from open-pit mines at depths to 20 m. Converting volume of rock to volume of recoverable oil requires information on oil shale properties, such as organic content and grade, which can vary widely within a deposit. ExxonMobil and AMSO are some of the various companies pursuing research and development processes for in situ oil shale conversion.
American Shale Oil LLC | Date: 2010-05-13
A system and process for extracting hydrocarbons from a subterranean body of oil shale within an oil shale deposit located beneath an overburden. The system comprises an energy delivery subsystem to heat the body of oil shale and a hydrocarbon gathering subsystem for gathering hydrocarbons retorted from the body of oil shale. The energy delivery subsystem comprises at least one energy delivery well drilled from the surface of the earth through the overburden to a depth proximate a bottom of the body of oil shale, the energy delivery well extending generally downward from a surface location above a proximal end of the body of oil shale to be retorted and continuing proximate the bottom of the body of oil shale. The energy delivery well may extend into the body of oil shale at an angle.
American Shale Oil LLC | Date: 2014-02-12
Devices, systems, and processes are provided for retorting and extracting hydrocarbons from oil shale. A heat transfer fluid includes at least one liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) component such as, for example, propane or butane. The heat transfer fluid moves through a heat delivery loop to retort oil shale, thereby facilitating the production of recoverable hydrocarbons. While the heat transfer fluid moves through the heat delivery loop, cracking of a portion of the heat transfer fluid may produce various hydrocarbon materials that may be provided to a product stream.