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Kondamudi N.,University of Nevada, Reno | Mohapatra S.K.,American Science and Technology | Misra M.,University of Nevada, Reno
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2011

Biodiesel synthesis from waste vegetable oils, restaurant grease and poultry fat gained industrial importance compared to the high priced, food based vegetable oils. The major drawback of waste streams is the free fatty acid (FFA) content, which is difficult to convert into biodiesel. This paper describes synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of Quntinite-3T, a bifunctional heterogeneous catalyst that converts FFA and triglycerides (TGs) simultaneously into biodiesel. The catalyst is prepared by sol-gel process and is characterized by XRD, SEM, and HR-TEM. The catalyst is tested for soy, canola, coffee and waste vegetable oils with variable amounts of FFAs (0-30 wt%). 1H NMR, HPLC, GC-MS were used for analyzing the reaction products. The catalyst successfully converted both FFA and TGs in a single step batch reactor. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Barfield W.L.,American Science and Technology
Academic Medicine | Year: 2016

Women continue to face unique barriers in the biomedical workforce that affect their advancement and retention in this field. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) formed the Working Group on Women in Biomedical Careers to address these issues. Through the efforts of the working group, the NIH funded 14 research grants to identify barriers or to develop and/or test interventions to support women in the biomedical workforce. The grantees that were funded through this endeavor later established the grassroots Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers, and they continue to conduct research and disseminate information on the state of women in academic medicine. This Commentary explores the themes introduced in a collection of articles organized by the research partnership and published in this issue of Academic Medicine. The authors highlight the role that government plays in the advancement of women in academic medicine and highlight the findings put forward in this collection. © 2016 by the Association of American Medical Colleges

Fortman J.L.,American Science and Technology | Mukhopadhyay A.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Antibiotic resistance is on the rise while the number of antibiotics being brought to market continues to drop. While this is a dire situation, a number of emerging technologies have the potential to reverse this trend. These, and supporting legislative initiatives, promise to stave off the post-antibiotic era. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

The likely intensification of extreme droughts from climate change in many regions across the United States has increased interest amongst researchers and water managers to understand not only the magnitude of drought impacts and their consequences on water resources, but also what they can do to prevent, respond to, and adapt to these impacts. Building and mobilizing 'adaptive capacity' can help in this pursuit. Researchers anticipate that drought preparedness measures will increase adaptive capacity, but there has been minimal testing of this and other assumptions about the governance and institutional determinants of adaptive capacity. This paper draws from recent extreme droughts in Arizona and Georgia to empirically assess adaptive capacity across spatial and temporal scales. It combines quantitative and qualitative methodologies to identify a handful of heuristics for increasing adaptive capacity of water management to extreme droughts and climate change, and also highlights potential tradeoffs in building and mobilizing adaptive capacity across space and time. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Hill M.,University of Geneva | Engle N.L.,American Science and Technology
Environmental Policy and Governance | Year: 2013

Climate variability and climate change impacts on hydrological conditions prescribe the need to better understand favourable conditions for developing and mobilising adaptive capacity. This paper presents new cases to the body of evidence on adaptive capacity in the context of institutional arrangements for water management. It aims to contribute insights into the challenges of developing approaches across governance scales for dealing with climate variability and climate change impacts. The different case studies explored in this article represent an exploration of the challenges across temporal and spatial scales in relation to the adaptive capacity of water governance to hydro-climatic stresses. The studies use a suite of governance related indicators to explore adaptive capacity in relation to past extreme hydrological events. Analysis is based on qualitative open ended interviews and questionnaires. Results indicate that tensions persist in developing proactive capacity and mobilising reactive capacity at different scales of governance to different scales of change. Findings support the increasing recognition in the literature for top down and bottom up approaches to be better balanced in efforts to improve resilience to climate variability and change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

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