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Flack K.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Kitagawa K.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Pollet P.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Eckert C.A.,Georgia Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Organic Process Research and Development | Year: 2012

The Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley (MPV) reduction of aldehydes and ketones has been the cornerstone in many multistep syntheses. Herein we report the use of Al(OtBu) 3 instead of the commonly used Al(OiPr) 3 which results in a dramatic rate increase and significantly lower catalyst loading for the reduction of (1) model compounds benzaldehyde and acetophenone, and (2) N-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)-(3S)-3-amino-1-chloro-4-phenyl-2-butanone or (S)-CMK, a key intermediate in HIV protease inhibitor synthesis. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Heaner Iv W.L.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Gelbaum C.S.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Gelbaum L.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Pollet P.,Georgia Institute of Technology | And 5 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2013

A series of substituted indoles have been synthesized by the sequential reaction of aromatic aldehydes with ethyl azidoacetate in the presence of sodium ethoxide to form the corresponding ethyl α-azido-β-arylacrylates (Knoevenagel process) followed by a solvent mediated thermolysis (Hemetsberger process). The isolated yields of the ethyl α-azido-β-arylacrylates were significantly increased when employing the sacrificial electrophile ethyl trifluoroacetate. 1H NMR and coupled 1H-13C NMR analysis of the ethyl α-azido-β-arylacrylates indicate that the condensation is stereospecific - only the Z-isomer could be detected. Solvent mediated thermal treatment of the meta-substituted ethyl α-azido-β- arylacrylates resulted in the formation of both the 5- and 7- substituted indoles - the 5-regioisomer being slightly favored over the 7-regioisomer. Analogous thermal treatment of (2Z, 2Z′)-diethyl 3,3′-(1,3- phenylene)bis(2-azidoacrylate) and (2Z, 2Z′)-diethyl 3,3′-(1,4- phenylene)bis(2-azidoacrylate) exclusively produced pyrroloindoles, diethyl 1,5-dihydropyrrolo[2,3-f]indole-2,6-dicarboxylate and diethyl 1,5-dihydropyrrolo[2,3-f]indole-2,6-dicarboxylate, respectively. Results are also reported which indicate that the α-azido-β-arylacrylates can be used in the subsequent Hemetsberger indolization process without prior purification. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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