American Medical Group Association

Alexandria, VA, United States

American Medical Group Association

Alexandria, VA, United States
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Valuck T.,Discern Health | Dugan D.,Discern Health | Dubois R.W.,National Pharmaceutical Council | Westrich K.,National Pharmaceutical Council | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Managed Care | Year: 2015

Objectives: A primary objective of accountable care is to support providers in reforming care to improve outcomes and lower costs. Gaps in accountable care measure sets may cause missed opportunities for improvement and missed signals of problems in care. Measures to balance financial incentives may be particularly important for high-cost conditions or specialty treatments. This study explored gaps in measure sets for specific conditions and offers strategies for more comprehensive measurement that do not necessarily require more measures. Study Design: A descriptive analysis of measure gaps in accountable care programs and proposed solutions for filling the gaps. Methods: We analyzed gaps in 2 accountable care organization measure sets for 20 high-priority clinical conditions by comparing the measures in those sets with clinical guidelines and assessing the use of outcome measures. Where we identified gaps, we looked for existing measures to address the gaps. Gaps not addressed by existing measures were considered areas for measure development or measurement strategy refinement. Results: We found measure gaps across all 20 conditions, including those conditions that are commonly addressed in current measure sets. In addition, we found many gaps that could not be filled by existing measures. Results across all 20 conditions informed recommendations for measure set improvement. Conclusions: Addressing all gaps in accountable care measure sets with more of the same types of measures and approaches to measurement would require an impractical number of measures and would miss the opportunity to use better measures and innovative approaches. Strategies for effectively filling measure gaps include using preferred measure types such as cross-cutting, outcome, and patient-reported measures. Program implementers should also apply new approaches to measurement, including layered and modular models.


Rowan C.G.,Partnership for Health Analytic Research | Rowan C.G.,Rutgers Biomedical and Health science | Flory J.,New York Medical College | Stempniewicz N.,American Medical Group Association | And 3 more authors.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety | Year: 2015

Background and objective: Controlling blood pressure (BP) for patients with stage 2 hypertension remains challenging. This research aimed to: (i) identify predictors of failure to achieve BP control, (ii) determine the association of adding one additional antihypertensive class with achieving BP control, and (iii) describe the prescribed antihypertensive regimens. Methods: Electronic medical record data from 25 multi-specialty medical groups in the USA were used. The study cohort included patients with stage 2 hypertension in 2012. BP control rates were determined at 6months from the date of the stage 2 BP. Using multivariable logistic regression and validation by Monte Carlo simulation, we determined independent baseline predictors of not achieving BP control (<140/90). Results: Included were 107903 patients. Baseline predictors of failure to achieve BP control included the following: a prior stage 2 BP, systolic BP≥165, Black race, male sex, income≤$35000, body mass index≥30, age≥65years, and no office visits. Increasing from single-class to dual-class antihypertensive therapy was associated with a 42% increased odds of achieving BP control (odds ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.22, 1.64); however, this effect was attenuated as the number of baseline antihypertensive classes increased. The 10 most frequently prescribed regimens accounted for only 40% of all antihypertensive regimens. Conclusions: Among patients with stage 2 hypertension, a prior stage 2 BP, a systolic BP≥165, and fewer office visits were strong predictors of failure to achieve BP control. Increasing to dual-class antihypertensive therapy was significantly associated with achieving BP control. There is broad heterogeneity in the antihypertensive regimens prescribed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | Partnership for Health Analytic Research, DaVita Clinical Research, New York Medical College and American Medical Group Association
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety | Year: 2015

Controlling blood pressure (BP) for patients with stage 2 hypertension remains challenging. This research aimed to: (i) identify predictors of failure to achieve BP control, (ii) determine the association of adding one additional antihypertensive class with achieving BP control, and (iii) describe the prescribed antihypertensive regimens.Electronic medical record data from 25 multi-specialty medical groups in the USA were used. The study cohort included patients with stage 2 hypertension in 2012. BP control rates were determined at 6months from the date of the stage 2 BP. Using multivariable logistic regression and validation by Monte Carlo simulation, we determined independent baseline predictors of not achieving BP control (<140/90).Included were 107903 patients. Baseline predictors of failure to achieve BP control included the following: a prior stage 2 BP, systolic BP165, Black race, male sex, income$35000, body mass index30, age65years, and no office visits. Increasing from single-class to dual-class antihypertensive therapy was associated with a 42% increased odds of achieving BP control (odds ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.22, 1.64); however, this effect was attenuated as the number of baseline antihypertensive classes increased. The 10 most frequently prescribed regimens accounted for only 40% of all antihypertensive regimens.Among patients with stage 2 hypertension, a prior stage 2 BP, a systolic BP165, and fewer office visits were strong predictors of failure to achieve BP control. Increasing to dual-class antihypertensive therapy was significantly associated with achieving BP control. There is broad heterogeneity in the antihypertensive regimens prescribed.


Rowan C.G.,American Medical Group Association | Turner J.R.,Quintiles | Shah A.,REAL WORLD | Spaeder J.A.,Quintiles
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety | Year: 2014

Purpose: To describe initial antihypertensive management relative to important aspects of JNC7 hypertension guidelines, to identify predictors of receiving JNC7 discordant therapy, and to determine the association between receiving JNC7-concordant antihypertensive treatment and achieving blood pressure (BP) control. This study focused on aspects of the JNC7 guidelines which are consistent with other guidelines that have been published since JNC7. Methods: EMR data from eleven multi-specialty medical groups in the US were retrospectively collected between 2008-2011. The study cohort included incident hypertensive patients who received an antihypertensive prescription during the 6-month follow-up period. Patients with existing hypertension were excluded. JNC7-concordance of the prescribed antihypertensive regimen was evaluated. Using multivariable logistic regression, we determined the association between JNC7-concordance and achieving BP control. Additionally, we determined predictors of receiving JNC7-discordant treatment. Results: 14,910 incident hypertensive patients who were treated with an antihypertensive during the 6-month follow-up period were included. Overall, 79.4% patients were prescribed antihypertensive therapy concordant with JNC7; however among patients with stage 2 hypertension, the concordance was found to be 50%. BP control was achieved by 64.1% and 48.5% of patients who received JNC7-concordant and JNC7-discordant therapy, respectively. The overall adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for BP control and JNC7-concordance was 1.53 (1.40, 1.68). The association was attenuated for cohort members with diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and stage 2 hypertension. Predictors of receiving JNC7-discordant therapy were congestive heart failure, CKD, and diabetes. Conclusion: JNC7-concordance is high overall, but drops substantially when JNC7 recommendations are more demanding (e.g., among patients with stage 2 hypertension and/or CKD, CHF, diabetes). Overall, patients who are prescribed an antihypertensive regimen that is JNC7-concordant are more likely to achieve BP control. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Brummel A.,Fairview Pharmacy Services LLC | Lustig A.,Health Services Research | Westrich K.,National Pharmaceutical Council | Evans M.A.,Geisinger Health System | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: One of the most important and often overlooked challenges for accountable care organizations (ACOs) is ensuring the optimal use of pharmaceuticals, which can be accomplished by utilizing pharmacists' skillsets and leveraging their full clinical expertise. Developing capabilities that support, monitor, and ensure appropriate medication use, efficacy, and safety is critical to achieving optimal patient outcomes and, ultimately, to an ACO's success. The program described in this article highlights the best practices of Fairview Pharmacy Services' Medication Therapy Management (MTM) program with additional thoughts and considerations on this and similar MTM programs provided by The Working Group on Optimizing Medication Therapy in Value-Based Healthcare. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Fairview Pharmacy Services utilizes 23 MTM pharmacists (approximately 18 full-time equivalents) working in 30 locations, who conduct pharmacotherapy workups as part of the MTM services that Fairview provides. Pharmacists focus on patients in a comprehensive manner and assess all of their diseases and medications. Responsibilities include (a) identification of a patient's drug-related needs with a commitment to meet those needs; (b) an assessment and confirmation that all of a patient's drug therapy is appropriately indicated, effective and safe, and that the patient is compliant; (c) achievement of therapy outcomes and ensuring documentation of those outcomes; and (d) collaboration with all members of a patient's care team. OBSERVATIONS: Since 1998, pharmacists have cared for more than 20,000 patients and resolved more than 107,000 medication-related problems which, if left unresolved, could have led to hospital readmissions and emergency visits. Since becoming a Pioneer ACO, Fairview pharmacists have focused on the highest-risk members and have seen over 670 ACO patients, resolving over 2,780 medication-related problems. In terms of clinical outcomes, MTM contributed to optimal care in complex patients with diabetes. A review of 2007 data found that the percentage of diabetes patients optimally managed (as measured by a composite of hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, blood pressure, aspirin use, and no smoking) was significantly higher for MTM patients (21% vs. 45%, P < 0.01). The Fairview MTM also showed a 12:1 return on investment (ROI) when comparing the overall health care costs of patients receiving MTM services with patients who did not receive those services. IMPLICATIONS: Developing an MTM program to manage and optimize pharmaceuticals will be a cornerstone to managing the health of a population. Important lessons have been learned that may be helpful to other health systems developing MTM programs. In an accountable care environment measuring the return on the investment of all care interventions, including MTM will be essential to maintain the program. The ACO will also have to be able to correctly identify which patients are candidates for MTM services and provide pharmacists with enough autonomy, including scheduling face-to-face interactions with patients and the ability to change prescriptions if necessary, to ensure that timely and effective care is delivered. In order for an ACO to deliver high quality patient-centered medication services, there must be clear lines of communication between providers, pharmacists, and the other care providers within the organization. Finally, a strong and visionary leader is critical to ensuring the success of an MTM program and ultimately the ACO itself. RECOMMENDATIONS: While there is a plethora of literature touting the benefits of either in-person or telephonic-based MTM, there is little research to date that directly compares these 2 MTM delivery types. It is critical for research to address the direct and indirect costs associated with starting and maintaining an MTM program. Information such as technologies required to start a program and length of time until a program breaks even or meets a sufficient ROI can be helpful for health care providers in similar health systems pitching a similar type of program. Finally, there has yet to be significant empirical research into the cost savings of utilizing a pharmacist and MTM services associated with meeting quality and cost benchmarks in an accountable care payment arrangement. © 2014, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy.


Dubois R.W.,ReSearch Pharmaceutical Services | Feldman M.,Medication Management | Lustig A.,ReSearch Pharmaceutical Services | Kotzbauer G.,The Dartmouth Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy | Year: 2014

Background: Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have the potential to lower costs and improve quality through incentives and coordinated care. However, the design brings with it many new challenges. One such challenge is the optimal use of pharmaceuticals. Most ACOs have not yet focused on this integral facet of care, even though medications are a critical component to achieving the lower costs and improved quality that are anticipated with this new model. Objective: To evaluate whether ACOs are prepared to maximize the value of medications for achieving quality benchmarks and cost offsets. Methods: During the fall of 2012, an electronic readiness self-assessment was developed using a portion of the questions and question methodology from the National Survey of Accountable Care Organizations, along with original questions developed by the authors. The assessment was tested and subsequently revised based on feedback from pilot testing with 5 ACO representatives. The revised assessment was distributed via e-mail to a convenience sample (n=175) of ACO members of the American Medical Group Association, Brookings-Dartmouth ACO Learning Network, and Premier Healthcare Alliance. Results: The self-assessment was completed by 46 ACO representatives (26% response rate). ACOs reported high readiness to manage medications in a few areas, such as transmitting prescriptions electronically (70%), being able to integrate medical and pharmacy data into a single database (54%), and having a formulary in place that encourages generic use when appropriate (50%). However, many areas have substantial room for improvement with few ACOs reporting high readiness. Some notable areas include being able to quantify the cost offsets and hence demonstrate the value of appropriate medication use (7%), notifying a physician when a prescription has been filled (9%), having protocols in place to avoid medication duplication and polypharmacy (17%), and having quality metrics in place for a broad diversity of conditions (22%). Conclusions: Developing the capabilities to support, monitor, and ensure appropriate medication use will be critical to achieve optimal patient outcomes and ACO success. The ACOs surveyed have embarked upon an important journey towards this goal, but critical gaps remain before they can become fully accountable. While many of these organizations have begun adopting health information technologies that allow them to maximize the value of medications for achieving quality outcomes and cost offsets, a significant lag was identified in their inability to use these technologies to their full capacities. In order to provide further guidance, the authors have begun documenting case studies for public release that would provide ACOs with examples of how certain medication issues have been addressed by ACOs or relevant organizations. The authors hope that these case studies will help ACOs optimize the value of pharmaceuticals and achieve the "triple aim" of improving care, health, and cost. © 2014, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy.


NEW YORK, March 2, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- The Kinetix Group has been recognized by the American Medical Group Association (AMGA) as a certified Charter Club member for its generous support of the AMGA's mission to promote patient-centered, value-driven health care. As both a life sciences...


Lustig A.,National Pharmaceutical Council | Ogden M.,Cornerstone Health Care | Brenner R.W.,Summit Medical Group | Penso J.,American Medical Group Association | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Managed Care and Specialty Pharmacy | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: In 2013, it was reported that about 1 of every 3 U.S. adults has hypertension. Of these 70 million individuals, approximately 50[%] have their blood pressure under control. Achieving hypertension control, especially in at-risk populations, requires a multipronged approach that includes lifestyle modifications and pharmacological treatment. As provider groups, hospital systems, and integrated delivery networks optimize their care processes to promote population health activities in support of the accountable care organization (ACO) model of care, managing hypertension and other chronic diseases will be essential to their success. A critical aspect of managing populations in an ACO environment is optimization of care processes among providers to increase care efficiency and improve patient outcomes. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Launched in 2013, Measure Up/Pressure Down is a 3-year campaign developed by the American Medical Group Foundation (AMGF) to reduce the burden of high blood pressure. The goal of the campaign is for participating medical groups, health systems, and other organized systems of care to achieve hypertension control for 80[%] of their patients with high blood pressure by 2016, according to national standards. The role of physician leadership at Cornerstone Health Care (CHC) and Summit Medical Group (SMG) in facilitating organizational change to improve hypertension management through the implementation of the Measure Up/Pressure Down national hypertension campaign is examined. OBSERVATIONS: Using patient stratification via its electronic health record, SMG identified 16,000 patients with hypertension. The baseline percentage of hypertension control for this patient population was 66[%]. Within 7 months, SMG was able to meet the 80[%] goal set forth by the AMGF's Measure Up/Pressure Down campaign. CHC diagnosed 25,312 patients with hypertension. The baseline percentage of hypertension control for this subgroup of patients was 51.5[%] when the initiative was first implemented. To date, the organization has achieved 72[%] hypertension control for atrisk patients and continues work towards the 80[%] campaign goal. The implementation of the Measure Up/Pressure Down campaign by CHC and SMG provides some valuable lessons. To further explore important aspects of successfully implementing the Measure Up/Pressure Down campaign in real-world settings, 6 key themes were identified that drove quality improvement and may be helpful to other organizations that implement similar quality improvement initiatives: (1) transitioning to value-based payments, (2) creating an environment for success, (3) leveraging program champions, (4) sharing quality data, (5) promoting care team collaboration, and (6) leveraging health information technology. IMPLICATIONS: The strategies employed by SMG and CHC, such as leveraging data analysis to identify at-risk patients and comparing physician performance, as well as identifying leaders to institute change, can be replicated by an ACO or a managed care organization (MCO). An MCO can provide data analysis services, sparing the provider groups the analytic burden and helping the MCO build a more meaningful relationship with their providers. © 2016, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. All rights reserved.


Wu J.J.,Kaiser Permanente | Rowan C.G.,American Medical Group Association | Bebchuk J.D.,Kaiser Permanente | Anthony M.S.,Amgen Inc.
Journal of Drugs in Dermatology | Year: 2015

Background: The use of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) has been associated with a reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective: To compare changes in hemoglobin A1C and fasting glucose for patients exposed to TNFi. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, patients with at least 3 recorded diagnosis codes for psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis between January 1, 2004 and July 31, 2011. Patients were Kaiser Permanente Southern California members for at least 1 year prior to the index date. Results: For hemoglobin A1C, there were 344 patents in the MTX cohort, and 118 patients in the TNFi+MTX cohort. In the covariate adjusted main effects ANCOVA model, the TNFi+MTX cohort had a lower mean change in hemoglobin A1C of -0.18mg/dL (95% CI: -0.35, -0.01) compared to the MTX cohort, although the difference is small and this model was not complete as there were significant interactions. For fasting glucose, there were 524 patients in the MTX cohort, and 121 patients in the TNFi+MTX cohort. In the covariate adjusted main effects ANCOVA model, change in fasting glucose was not significantly different between groups: -0.58 mg/dL (95% CI: -5.05, 3.88) for the TNFi+MTX cohort compared to the MTX cohort, although this model was not complete as there was a significant interaction. Conclusions: The use of TNF inhibitors with MTX was not associated with a significant difference in the change of hemoglobin A1C or fasting glucose compared to MTX alone. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Drugs in Dermatology.


PubMed | American Medical Group Association
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety | Year: 2014

To describe initial antihypertensive management relative to important aspects of JNC7 hypertension guidelines, to identify predictors of receiving JNC7 discordant therapy, and to determine the association between receiving JNC7-concordant antihypertensive treatment and achieving blood pressure (BP) control. This study focused on aspects of the JNC7 guidelines which are consistent with other guidelines that have been published since JNC7.EMR data from eleven multi-specialty medical groups in the US were retrospectively collected between 2008-2011. The study cohort included incident hypertensive patients who received an antihypertensive prescription during the 6-month follow-up period. Patients with existing hypertension were excluded. JNC7-concordance of the prescribed antihypertensive regimen was evaluated. Using multivariable logistic regression, we determined the association between JNC7-concordance and achieving BP control. Additionally, we determined predictors of receiving JNC7-discordant treatment.14,910 incident hypertensive patients who were treated with an antihypertensive during the 6-month follow-up period were included. Overall, 79.4% patients were prescribed antihypertensive therapy concordant with JNC7; however among patients with stage 2 hypertension, the concordance was found to be 50%. BP control was achieved by 64.1% and 48.5% of patients who received JNC7-concordant and JNC7-discordant therapy, respectively. The overall adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for BP control and JNC7-concordance was 1.53 (1.40, 1.68). The association was attenuated for cohort members with diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and stage 2 hypertension. Predictors of receiving JNC7-discordant therapy were congestive heart failure, CKD, and diabetes.JNC7-concordance is high overall, but drops substantially when JNC7 recommendations are more demanding (e.g., among patients with stage 2 hypertension and/or CKD, CHF, diabetes). Overall, patients who are prescribed an antihypertensive regimen that is JNC7-concordant are more likely to achieve BP control.

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