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College Park, MD, United States

Dylla H.F.,American Institute of Physics
Information Services and Use

This paper presents the content of my closing address given at the Academic Publishing in Europe 2012 Conference. I share my perspective of the public access debate, as CEO of American Institute of Physics, a medium-size scientific publisher and my observations on our industry's most important customers-the libraries. The origin of the often contentious public access debate can be traced back to a worthy goal shared by all stakeholders: the expansion of access to and broad use of scholarly publications. Starting with principles and recommendations set forth in the 2010 Scholarly Publishing Roundtable Report, I outline a productive and pragmatic path forward and identify appropriate and cost-effective options for expanding access. Furthermore, I review the major elements of public access policy development in the US since 2005, leading up to January 2012, a year after President Obama signed into public law the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010. This essay has been expanded to include additional information, covering the issue through September 2012 (submission date of this article), and addresses related government initiatives that appeared in the UK and the European Union. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. Source

Dylla F.,American Institute of Physics
Information Services and Use

The Clearinghouse for the Open Research of the US (CHORUS) is a non-profit public-private partnership to provide public access to the peer-reviewed publications that report on federally funded research. CHORUS also provides enhanced search capabilities and links the public to articles directly on publisher platforms, where the articles can be read and preserved in their scholarly context. CrossRef provides the infrastructure for linking to the article or other document and collecting and retrieving the funding information, and CHORUS takes care of other search items. The CHORUS pilot program has been launched from 2013, gaining support of the scholarly communications community, along with endorsements from more than 100 publishers and organizations in less than six months. Source

Weart S.R.,American Institute of Physics
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change

People had long speculated thathumanactivities might affect a region's climate. But a developed conjecture that humanitymight change the climate of the entire planet first appeared in 1896: a calculation that carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion could gradually warm the globe. Scientists soon rejected the idea. Most people thought it incredible that climate could change globally except on a geological timescale, pushed by forces far stronger than human activity. In midcentury, a few scientists revived the hypothesis of global warming. Meanwhile, the exponential growth of human activity, especially chemical pollution and nuclear armaments, was showing that humanity really could affect the entire atmosphere. Moreover, during the 1960s research suggested that small perturbations might lead to an abrupt change in the climate system. Although nobody expected serious impacts until the distant 21st century, some began to frame global warming not just as a scientific puzzle but as an environmental risk, a security risk, a practical policy question, an international relations issue, and even a moral problem. In the late 1970s a scientific consensus began to take shape, culminating around the end of the century in unanimous agreement among government representatives on essential points, although many uncertainties remained. Meanwhile, increasing media warnings of peril made most of the literate world public aware of the issue, which had deep implications for the human relationship with nature. Skepticism persisted, correlated with aversion to regulation. The majority of the world public were now concerned, but disinclined to take action. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Weart S.,American Institute of Physics
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics

With the coming of digital computers in the 1950s, a small American team set out to model the weather, followed by attempts to represent the entire general circulation of the atmosphere. The work spread during the 1960s, and by the 1970s a few modelers had produced somewhat realistic looking models of the planet's regional climate pattern. The work took on wider interest when modelers tried increasing the level of greenhouse gases, and invariably found serious global warming. Skeptics pointed to dubious technical features, but by the late 1990s these problems were largely resolved-thanks to enormous increases in computer power, the number and size of the closely interacting teams that now comprised the international modeling community, and the crucial availability of field experiments and satellite data to set against the models' assumptions and outputs. By 2007 nearly all climate experts accepted that the climate simulations represented reality well enough to impel strong action to restrict gas emissions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SPECIAL PROGRAMS IN ASTRONOMY | Award Amount: 149.41K | Year: 2013

Past snapshots of the fraction of professional astronomers who are women at various career stages have suggested a higher attrition rate than for men. While anecdotal evidence suggests possible reasons, reliable statistical data and analyses are lacking. This award will enable the PI to follow a cohort of men and women astronomers over a decade, track the decisions they make, and make links to underlying causes. The time period is key to success, collecting data from the cohort in three staged surveys. The award will support the analysis of data from the second survey round, the preparation of the third survey and its analysis, and linking together the ultimate findings and conclusions from the complete program. Using data from all three rounds, the Longitudinal Study will ultimately: (1) provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, (2) collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, (3) determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and (4) examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

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