Gates M.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Lill J.T.,George Washington University |
Kula R.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
O'Hara J.E.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington | Year: 2012
Hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of slug moth caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) from North America are reviewed, and an illustrated key to 23 genera is presented. Limacodid surveys and rearing were conducted during the summer months of 20042009 as part of research on the ecology and natural history of Limacodidae in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.A. Parasitoid rearing involved a combination of collecting naturally occurring larvae in the field (at least 14 host species) and placing out large numbers of "sentinel" larvae derived from laboratory colonies of three host species. Species in the following families are documented from limacodids in North America as primary or secondary parasitoids (number of genera for each family in parentheses; number of genera included in key but not reared through this research in brackets): Chalcididae (; Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), Eulophidae (3; Chalcidoidea), Pteromalidae (; Chalcidoidea), Trichogrammatidae (1; Chalcidoidea), Braconidae (3 ; Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea), Ichneumonidae (7 ; Ichneumonoidea), Ceraphronidae (1; Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea), Trigonalidae (2; Hymenoptera: Trigonaloidea), Bombyliidae (; Diptera: Asilioidea), and Tachinidae (3; Oestroidea). We recovered 20 of 28 genera known to attack limacodids in North America. Records discerned through rearing in the mid-Atlantic region are augmented with previously published host-parasitoid relationships for Limacodidae in North America north of Mexico. New records are reported for the following parasitoids (total new records in parentheses): Uramya limacodis (Walker) (1), U. pristis (Townsend) (5), Austrophorocera spp. (6), Ceraphron sp. (1), Alveoplectrus lilli Gates (1), Playplectrus americana (Girault) (10), Pediobius crassicornis (Thomson) (1), Trichogramma (1), Mesochorus discitergus (Say) (1), Hyposoter fugitivus (Say) (1), and Isdromas lycaenae (Howard) (5). The male of Platyplectrus americana (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is redescribed, and the female is described for the first time. Incidental and miscellaneous host-parasitoid associations are discussed, and it is concluded that most of these records are likely parasitoids of contaminants accidentally introduced during the limacodid rearing process. Triraphis eupoeyiae (Ashmead), new combination, is transferred from Rogas (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).
Yakovlev R.V.,Altai State University |
Saldaitis A.,Nature Research Center |
Kons Jr. H.,American Entomological Institute |
Borth R.,LepBio LLC
Zootaxa | Year: 2013
A checklist of the genus Catopta Staudinger, 1889 is presented. A new species, ?. dusii sp. nov., from the Xiling Xue Shan Mountains of in the Noth West China's Sichuan Province is described. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.
Sivinski J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Wahl D.,American Entomological Institute |
Holler T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Dobai S.A.,General Directorate of Plant Protection |
Sivinski R.,7000 Falls Reach Rd.
Biological Control | Year: 2011
Flowering plants in agricultural landscapes can provide ecological services, such as nectar-provision for adult parasitic Hymenoptera. Various flowering native, introduced/established and cultivated potted plants were used to bait interception traps along the wooded margins of fields planted seasonally with either feed-corn or rye. Depending on circumstances, controls consisted of traps baited with the same species of plant without flowers, a pot/area without plants, or both. In most cases pots were rotated among trap-sites. Of the 19 plant species tested, 10 captured significantly more summed ichneumonoids and chalcidoids, seven more Braconidae, two more Ichneumonidae and six more Chalcidoidea than controls. Among Braconidae, traps baited with certain plants captured significantly more individuals of specific subfamilies. " Attractive" and " unattractive" plant species tended to cluster in a principal components vector space constructed from plant morphological characteristics (flower width, flower depth, flower density and plant height). Flower width and plant floral-area (flower width2*flower density) were the variables that most often explained the variance in capture of the different parasitoid taxa. Our study identified particular plants that could be incorporated into regional conservation biological control programs to benefit parasitoid wasps In addition, the results indicate that morphological characteristics might help identify further suitable plant candidates for agricultural landscape modification. © 2011.
Shaw M.R.,Honorary Research |
Wahl D.B.,American Entomological Institute
Zootaxa | Year: 2014
Adelognathus leucotrochi Shaw & Wahl sp. nov. is described from Britain where it is a univoltine slightly gregarious koinobiont ectoparasitoid of late stage larvae of the tenthredinid sawfly Nematus leucotrochus Hartig feeding on Ribes uva-crispa. Defensive reactions by the host to prospecting females are described. The developmental biology of A. leucotrochi is described in detail: the host is only temporarily paralysed by the injection of a venom that has no other effect on the host, and eggs are laid on the host's dorsum without involvement of the ovipositor-that is, the egg issues direct from the genital opening. Prior to oviposition the adult female parasitoid prepares the site by spreading an adhesive substance from her ovipositor. Host-feeding by adult females occurs on haemolymph and sometimes also other tissues obtained at the site of a wound made always by the mandibles, but appears not to be obligatory. It may be concurrent or nonconcurrent with oviposition; in the latter case, it may be either destructive or non-destructive. Larval development is very rapid, taking about 70 hr at 18-22°C, and the host continues to feed for approximately the first half of this period. Five larval instars were detected, and their cephalic sclerites are described and illustrated, as are those of the final instars of a further three species of Adelognathus for comparison. The rather featureless final instar larva is also figured, as is the tough cocoon in which the winter is passed as a prepupa. The biology of some idiobiont Adelognathus species is discussed in comparison with that of A. leucotrochi, and several other instances of eggs not issuing from the ovipositor in non-Aculeate ectoparasitoid Hymenoptera, whether koinobionts or idiobionts, are briefly reviewed. It s concluded that this habit seems to arise rather easily when there is direct bodily contact between the adult and the host/prey, as indeed is the case in all carnivorous aculeates that do not practice continuous provisioning. © 2014 Magnolia Press.
Wilson J.S.,University of Nevada, Reno |
Wilson J.S.,Utah State University |
Gunnell C.F.,Utah State University |
Wahl D.B.,American Entomological Institute |
Pitts J.P.,Utah State University
Insect Conservation and Diversity | Year: 2013
The California floristic province is home to several threatened or endangered species and has been the focus of numerous conservation efforts. These conservation efforts have largely ignored the diverse and distinctive arthropod fauna found in this region. We investigate the species boundaries of the four tarantula (Araneae: Theraphosidae) species endemic to California's Southern Coast Ranges through molecular phylogenetic analysis using a 680 bp region of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 from 51 individuals. Our analysis resulted in a well-supported phylogeny showing three distinct clades. As a result, we recognise only one species in the Southern Coast Ranges (Aphonopelma brunnius, with A. chamberlini and A. smithi treated as junior synonyms; if the holotype of A. rileyi is located it will likely be a synonym as well). Two additional species were found in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Although the tarantulas in California's Southern Coast Ranges are not as endemic as was previously thought, their position as top arthropod predators make them ideal sentinel species, suggesting they should be targeted by conservationists. Furthermore, our analyses illustrate the importance in using molecular tools to investigate biodiversity. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.
Ng Y.F.,National University of Malaysia |
Gupta V.K.,American Entomological Institute |
Idris A.B.,National University of Malaysia
Entomological News | Year: 2012
The genus Polyaulon is recorded from the Oriental Region for the first time. A new species, Polyaulon terenggamiensis is described and illustrated.
Kons H.L.,American Entomological Institute |
Borth R.J.,Lepidoptera Biodiversity LLC
Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History | Year: 2015
A new species of underwing moth, Catocala myristica sp. nov., is described from the southeastern United States. Wing pattern, genitalic and Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I 5′ mitochondrial DNA characters separate C. myristica from phenotypically similar species in the genus. The new species occurs in the Black Belt ecological region in close association with nutmeg hickory, Carya myristiciformis. © 2015 Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University. All rights reserved.