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American Electric Power is a major investor-owner electric utility in the United States, delivering electricity to more than 5 million customers in 11 states.AEP ranks among the nation's largest generators of electricity, owning nearly 38,000 megawatts of generating capacity in the U.S. AEP also owns the nation's largest electricity transmission system, a nearly 39,000-mile -network that includes 765 kilovolt ultra-high voltage transmission lines, more than all other U.S. transmission systems combined. AEP's transmission system directly or indirectly serves about 10 percent of the electricity demand in the Eastern Interconnection, the interconnected transmission system that covers 38 eastern and central U.S. states and eastern Canada, and approximately 11 percent of the electricity demand in Electric Reliability Council of Texas, the transmission system that covers much of Texas. AEP's utility units operate as AEP Ohio, AEP Texas, Appalachian Power , Indiana Michigan Power, Kentucky Power, Public Service Company of Oklahoma, and Southwestern Electric Power Company . AEP's headquarters are in Columbus, Ohio.American Electric Power was the first utility to utilize 345 kV transmission lines which took place in 1953. Wikipedia.


Schneider K.P.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Weaver T.F.,American Electric Power
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2014

In a regulated business environment, a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. While there are well established procedures for determining the benefits derived from the deployment of traditional technologies, the same procedures do not exist for many emerging technologies. Volt-VAR Optimization is an example of an emerging technology that is being deployed across the nation without a standardized method for determining system performance and benefits. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to presenting the methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the presented method. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Releases from coal ash impoundments can be a significant source of trace elements to the aquatic environment. In the present study, whole-body concentrations of As, Hg, and Se in various fish species inhabiting streams receiving a gradient of fly ash exposure are reported. High-exposure sites had elevated water concentrations of As, Mo, Se, and SO 4. Fish were collected during two seasons in 2007. Mercury concentrations in all fish samples were low (range=1.2-99ng/g wet wt); highest As concentrations occurred in fish from high-exposure sites. Whole-body Se concentrations were low at reference sites but increased as the magnitude of fly exposure increased. For all sites combined, a significant (r 2=0.60) correlation was observed between the geometric mean of each species' whole-body Se concentration and log-transformed water Se concentration. A significant inverse relationship was apparent with log-transformed whole-body Hg and Se concentrations (r 2=0.56 for all species and sites combined), suggesting that high tissue Se levels antagonistically regulated Hg bioaccumulation. Sunfish (Lepomis sp.) from high- and medium-exposure sites had significantly higher Se body residues, but significantly lower Hg, relative to fish from low-exposure and reference sites. Ninety percent of fish from high-exposure sites had a surplus of Se, whereas all fish from reference sites had Se/Hg molar ratios <1.0. These ratios increased as water Se increased. Where fish have moderate to high exposure to fly ash-influenced water, Se tissue levels can be expected to be elevated (as well as As, in some cases), but tissue Hg concentrations will likely be low. © 2012 SETAC. Source


Sezen H.,Ohio State University | Miller E.A.,American Electric Power
Journal of Bridge Engineering | Year: 2011

Insufficient or deteriorating reinforced-concrete piers in many existing bridges are required to be strengthened using economical, fast, and efficient methods. Currently, only a few methods can be used to strengthen circular columns. Steel jackets and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are the two commonly used methods. In this study, along with these two strengthening methods, concrete jackets reinforced with spiral rebar, welded wire fabric (WWF), and a new steel reinforcement called PCS are investigated under different axial-load applications. Fifteen identical specimens were constructed, strengthened, and tested: one column with no strengthening; three columns strengthened with FRP; two with steel jacketing; and nine with concrete jacketing (two with WWF, three with spiral rebar, and four with the new reinforcement). The bare or unretrofitted specimens had a 152mm (6in.) diameter, while the outside diameter of concrete-jacketed specimens was 254mm (10in.). Effectiveness of each strengthening method in increasing the stiffness, axial capacity, and displacement ductility was investigated using the experimental data. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


An analysis of a sample of new generation projects completed in 2011 finds that almost all new capacity was built under one of two financial arrangements: a long-term contract with a utility purchasing the power to serve customer load or ownership by an integrated utility to supply power to its customers. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Sun W.,Iowa State University | Liu C.-C.,University College Dublin | Zhang L.,American Electric Power
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2011

During system restoration, it is critical to utilize the available black-start (BS) units to provide cranking power to non-black-start (NBS) units in such a way that the overall system generation capability will be maximized. The corresponding optimization problem is combinatorial with complex practical constraints that can vary with time. This paper provides a new formulation of generator start-up sequencing as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem. The linear formulation leads to an optimal solution to this important problem that clearly outperforms heuristic or enumerative techniques in quality of solutions or computational speed. The proposed generator start-up strategy is intended to provide an initial starting sequence of all BS or NBS units. The method can provide updates on the system MW generation capability as the restoration process progresses. The IEEE 39-Bus system, American Electric Power (AEP), and Entergy test cases are used for validation of the generation capability optimization. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed MILP-based generator start-up sequencing algorithm is highly efficient. © 2011 IEEE. Source

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