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Chittum A.,University of Aalborg | Chittum A.,Gridkraft LLC | Chittum A.,American Efficient | Ostergaard P.A.,University of Aalborg
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

Danish municipal heat planning empowers municipalities to implement locally appropriate energy solutions that are the bestfit for the locality as a whole and the individual consumers served. Supportive policies and actions at the national and local levels have encouraged heat planning that confers significant autonomy to local governments. By examining how power is distributed and shared by different levels of governments in the planning process, this paper investigates how comprehensive energy planning in Denmark has supported the development of highly cost-effective district heating systems. Lessons from the Danish approach to heat planning are considered for their relevance to the United States, where significant technical district heating potential exists, yet remains well outside the typical energy policy discussions. While the specific Danish political context may not be transferable to other locations, the practical aspects of power sharing, socio-economic cost-benefit analyses, and communal decision-making may inform approaches to local heat planning around the world. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Khan A.,American Efficient | Langer T.,American Efficient
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2012

This paper compares federal fuel efficiency targets for heavy-duty pickup trucks (8,500 lb or more) of the 2014 to 2018 model years that were adopted in August 2011 with targets for large light-duty pickup trucks (less than 8,500 lb). The findings showed that for light-duty-heavy-duty pairs with similar specifications, the fuel efficiency targets for light-duty trucks by 2018 would be 53% to 64% higher than would the targets for their heavy-duty counterparts. Differences in curb weight and payload explained less than half of the difference in fuel efficiency requirements for the two classes of trucks. The paper compares the efficiency technologies applied in setting the standards and discusses consumer and market implications.


Russell C.H.,American Efficient
WEEC 2015 - World Energy Engineering Congress | Year: 2015

Business decision-makers are more likely to implement energy efficiency improvements if proposals demonstrate a wider range of benefits than what is immediately apparent. Proponents of these improvements must therefore be prepared to demonstrate more than just energy savings. Improvements to a business' energy performance can positively affect operational procedures, technology mixes, maintenance requirements, and other agendas. Business managers who fail to recognize energy efficiency's multiple benefits will forfeit business earnings and diminish shareholder value. At the societal level, such forfeiture retards economic development and the reduction of environmental pollutants. This report describes a study that sought several outcomes: (1) to make the wider consequences of energy-efficiency more transparent to business investment decision makers; (2) to stimulate the market for energy efficiency solutions by improving business sector understanding of- And thus demand for-energy efficiency and its coincident benefits; and (3) to expand the body of knowledge that can be used to promote energy efficiency to business facilities. This paper is derived from a larger report to be published in late 2015 by the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.


Vine E.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Vine E.,United Environment & Energy, Llc | Hall N.,TecMarket Works | Keating K.M.,6902 SW 14th Ave. | And 2 more authors.
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2013

In this paper, we focus on a select group of technical and policy issues, which are currently important and/or are expected to become more critical in the coming years. The first set of technical issues deals with the evaluation of (1) persistence, (2) behavior and behavior change, and (3) rebound. We provide an overview of the importance of these issues, discuss key data collection and analytical challenges involved in evaluating them, and identify some recent methodological advances that have been made in these areas. These technical issues are becoming more important as energy efficiency and demand side management are increasingly being relied upon as a means of achieving long-term energy resource and environmental objectives. The second set of policy issues deals with (1) the evaluation of energy efficiency at the "policy" rather than the "program" level, (2) the use of "top-down" rather than "bottom-up" evaluation of energy efficiency programs and policies, and (3) closing the loop between evaluators and implementers. We provide an overview of the importance of these issues, particularly as seen by policymakers at the state, federal, and international levels. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Baatz B.,American Efficient | Gilleo A.,American Efficient
Electricity Journal | Year: 2016

A review of 14 leading energy efficiency program administrators demonstrates that high levels of energy savings are not only achievable but also sustainable. Despite substantial challenges that may limit savings opportunities in traditional areas, energy savings have increased from year to year. Average net energy savings levels have doubled for the administrators in this sample, from 0.9% in 2008 to 1.8% in 2014. Utility-sector energy efficiency programs have grown substantially in the past decade. According to the most recent ACEEE State Energy Efficiency Scorecard, electric-efficiency program investments have increased from approximately $1.5 billion in 2006 to over $5.9 billion in 2014. As savings levels have increased, national leaders in program administration have emerged. In this paper we review annual program performance for 14 leading energy efficiency program administrators. We sought diversity in the selection of program administrators and included administrators of varying service-territory size and geographic location. Among the 14 program administrators we reviewed, none achieved electricity savings of 1.5% of retail electric sales in 2009. By 2014, 8 of the 14 were achieving savings higher than 1.5%, with 4 of the 8 saving more than 2%. The data also show that high savings are sustainable over time. We find that as savings rise, levelized costs of energy efficiency remain relatively flat. This paper also seeks to identify the drivers of high savings. State or local policy requirements to meet specific energy-efficient savings goals guide all program administrators in this study. The design of the targets and goals vary, but these policies are critical in driving high levels of savings. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Vine E.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Vine E.,University of California at Berkeley | Hall N.,TecMarket Works | Keating K.M.,TecMarket Works | And 2 more authors.
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2012

The evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) of energy-efficiency programs has a rich and extensive history in the United States, dating back to the late 1970s. During this time, many different kinds of EM&V issues have been addressed: technical (primarily focusing on EM&V methods and protocols), policy (primarily focusing on how EM&V results will be used by energy-efficiency program managers and policymakers), and infrastructure (primarily focusing on the development of EM&V professionals and an EM&V workforce). We address the issues that are currently important and/or are expected to become more critical in the coming years. We expect many of these issues will also be relevant for a non-US audience, particularly as more attention is paid to the reliability of energy savings and carbon emissions reductions from energy-efficiency programs. © 2010 The Author(s).


Trademark
American Efficient | Date: 2012-07-20

Electronic downloadable publications, namely, research reports, white papers, fact sheets and books in the field of energy efficiency. Providing education in the field of energy efficiency, namely, through providing conferences and workshops, and publishing reports, brochures, books and e-books. Promoting awareness of energy efficiency among citizens, public officials, and industry; providing a website featuring information in the field of energy efficiency.


Trademark
American Efficient | Date: 2012-07-20

Electronic downloadable publications, namely, research reports, white papers, fact sheets and books in the field of energy efficiency. Promoting awareness of energy efficiency among citizens, public officials, and industry; providing a website featuring information in the field of energy efficiency. Providing education in the field of energy efficiency, namely, through providing conferences and workshops, and publishing reports, brochures, books and e-books.


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