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DeLeo P.C.,American Cleaning Institute | Mudge S.M.,Exponent, Inc. | Dyer S.D.,Procter and Gamble
Environmental Forensics | Year: 2011

Advances in analytical chemistry have led to numerous low-level observations of consumer product ingredients in environmental media. A "market forensics" approach complementary to a typical sampling and analysis campaign is described using readily available product formulation and market sales data to estimate the "down-the-drain" load to a wastewater treatment facility. A case study for common cleaning product ingredients is provided for a site in the USA. A regional per capita daily use rate was derived (0.33 g/ person/day) and applied to the residents resulting in an estimated daily influent load (2 kg). A single product type, liquid laundry detergent, was found to contribute 69% of the load alone. © 2011 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Wibbertmann A.,Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine | Mangelsdorf I.,Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine | Gamon K.,Cognis GmbH | Sedlak R.,American Cleaning Institute
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2011

The category of the anionic surfactants (ANS) consisting of 46 alkyl sulfates, 6 primary alkane sulfonates, and 9 α-olefin sulfonates has been assessed under the high production volume (HPV) chemicals program of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 2007. In this review the toxicological properties of these chemicals are summarized. The chemicals of this category are used predominantly in detergents, household cleaning products, and cosmetics. These chemicals show low acute and repeat dose toxicity. There was no evidence of genetic or reproductive toxicity, or carcinogenicity. There also was no indication for sensitizing properties. Skin and eye irritating effects in consumers are not to be expected. For consumers, the calculated body burden is about 10,000 times lower than the lowest NOAEL value in experimental animals, so that adverse effects caused by substances of the ANS category can be excluded. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Konnecker G.,Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine | Regelmann J.,Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine | Belanger S.,Procter and Gamble | Gamon K.,Cognis GmbH | Sedlak R.,American Cleaning Institute
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2011

This paper summarizes the environmental hazard assessment of physicochemical properties, environmental fate and behavior and the ecotoxicity of a category of 61 anionic surfactants (ANS), comprised of alkyl sulfates (AS), primary alkane sulfonates (PAS) and alpha-olefin sulfonates (AOS) under the High Production Volume Chemicals Program of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).The most important common structural feature of the category members examined here is the presence of a predominantly linear aliphatic hydrocarbon chain with a polar sulfate or sulfonate group, neutralized with a counter-ion.The hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain (with a length between C 8 and C 18) and the polar sulfate or sulfonate groups confer surfactant properties and enable the commercial use of these substances as anionic surfactants. The close structural similarities lead to physico-chemical properties and environmental fate characteristics which follow a regular pattern and justify the applied read-across within a category approach. Common physical and/or biological properties result in structurally similar breakdown products and are, together with the surfactant properties, responsible for similar environmental behavior. The structural similarities result in the same mode of ecotoxic action. Within each of the three sub-categories of ANS the most important parameter influencing ecotoxicity is the varying length of the alkyl chain. Although the counter-ion may also influence the physico-chemical properties, there is no indication that it significantly affects chemical reactivity, environmental fate and behavior or ecotoxicity of these chemicals.Deduced from physico-chemical and surfactancy properties, the main target compartment for the substances of the ANS category is the hydrosphere. They are quantitatively removed in waste water treatment plants, mainly by biodegradation. Quantitative removal in biological treatment plants is reflected by low AS concentrations measured in effluents of waste water treatment plants (mostly below 10μg/L). In addition, bioaccumulation of ANS does not exceed regulatory triggers based upon experimental data.A considerable number of reliable aquatic toxicity data for the whole ANS category are available, including chronic and subchronic data for species of all trophic levels.Based upon the highest quality data in hand, there appears to be no singularly most sensitive trophic level in tests on the toxicity of alkyl sulfates, with a large degree of overlap among algae, invertebrates and fish. Algae proved to be more variable in sensitivity to alkyl sulfate exposure compared to fish and daphnia. The key study for the aquatic hazard assessment is a chronic test on Ceriodaphnia dubia, which covers a range of the alkyl chain length from C 12 to C 18. A parabolic response was observed, with the C 14 chain length being the most toxic (7d-NOEC=0.045mg/L). Responses of aquatic communities to C 12 AS and C 14-15 AS have been studied in high quality stream mesocosm studies containing a broad range of species and ecological interactions. These studies are regarded as a better approximation to reality when extrapolating to the environment. The 56-d chronic NOEC for C 12 AS and C 14-15 AS were 0.224 and 0.106mg/L, respectively, based on integrated assessments of periphyton (algal, bacterial and protozoan) and invertebrate communities.Taking into account the rapid biodegradation of the ANS compounds as well as the low concentrations measured in different environmental compartments, this category of surfactants is of low concern for the environment. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Mudge S.M.,Bangor University | Meier-Augenstein W.,Scottish Crop Research Institute | Eadsforth C.,Royal Dutch Shell | DeLeo P.,American Cleaning Institute
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2010

To investigate the potential sources of fatty alcohols arriving at a WWTP and entering the receiving waters, a study was conducted at Treborth North Wales using compound specific stable isotope mass spectrometry (13C and 2H). Samples were collected from soils, marine sediments, detergents used in the catchment and in the WWTP. Total fatty alcohol concentrations decreased in the liquid phases through the treatment works with the majority of the compounds accumulating in the sludge (biosolids). Natural plant based detergents have δ13C values between -26 and -32‰ while petroleum-based detergents occupy a range between -25 and -30‰. The corresponding δ2H values are -250‰ for natural sourced materials and -50‰ for oil-based detergents which enable these two sources to be separated. The influent to the WWTP contained fatty alcohols which originated mainly from faecal sources and natural surfactants (∼75%) with a smaller amount potentially derived from petroleum-based surfactants (∼25%). The effluents from the WWTP contained mainly short chain compounds with a chain length less than C16. Their δ2H stable isotope signature was different to the other potential sources examined and suggests bacterial synthesis during the treatment processes. The sludge had relatively high concentrations of fatty alcohols as would be expected from their low water solubility. The stable isotopic signatures were consistent with a mixture of faecal and detergent sources. The sludge in this area is routinely spread on agricultural land as a fertiliser and may find its way back into the sea via land runoff. On the basis of the mean discharge rates and the mean C 12 concentration in the effluent, this WWTP would contribute ∼300 g day-1 to the receiving waters. The marine sediment samples had short chain fatty alcohols that are typical of marine production and with stable isotope values that indicate exclusive marine production for the C14 potentially mixed with terrestrial sources for the C16 and C 18 compounds. Therefore, the fatty alcohols in the marine sediments are not the same as those that were discharged in the liquid effluent and these fatty alcohols were not the ones that entered the works through the influent but were synthesised or recycled within the works. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Mudge S.M.,Exponent UK | Deleo P.C.,American Cleaning Institute | Dyer S.D.,Procter and Gamble
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2012

Fatty alcohols are naturally produced hydrocarbons present in all living organisms. They are also used in detergent and cosmetic formulations, may be sourced from either petroleum or biological materials, and are typically disposed of down the drain. This study was conducted on the Luray catchment, Virginia, USA, where sales data indicate that approximately 2kg of fatty alcohols from detergent enter the wastewater every day. Reconstructing fatty alcohols in the influent on the basis of sales data indicated a mix of odd and even chain compounds, with C12 being dominant. This profile was influenced strongly by liquid laundry detergents (69%). Sediment and soil samples from the catchment were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry to determine the δ13C and δ2H signatures. The long-chain components in agricultural soils and river sediments were distinguishable clearly from the algal fatty alcohols produced within the river system. The wastewater was a mixture of fecal and detergent sources of fatty alcohols in a ratio of 75:25%. The fatty alcohols in the effluent had different stable isotopic signatures and chain-length profiles from the influent, indicating that these compounds are not the same as those that entered the treatment plant. The total quantity of fatty alcohols leaving the treatment plant through the effluent pipe was low compared with the input. Analysis of the contributions based on the stable isotopes and profiles suggests that of the fatty alcohols present in the river system downstream of the treatment plant, 84% were derived from terrestrial plant production, 15% came from in situ algal synthesis, and 1% were derived from the effluent. © 2012 SETAC.

Sanderson H.,University of Aarhus | van Compernolle R.,Global Solutions U.S. Inc. | Dyer S.D.,Procter and Gamble | Price B.B.,Procter and Gamble | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are high production volume (HPV) chemicals globally used in detergent and personal care products and are truly a work-horse for the household and personal care industries. Commercial AE generally consist of a mixture of several homologues of varying carbon chain length and degree of ethoxylation. Homologues that are not ethoxylated are also known as aliphatic alcohols or simply fatty alcohols (FA). This group of homologues represents a special interest in the context of environmental risk, as these are also abundant and ubiquitous naturally occurring compounds (e.g. animal fats and in human feces). Hence, in a risk assessment one needs to distinguish between the natural (background) concentrations and the added contribution from anthropogenic activities. We conducted a weight-of-evidence risk assessment in three streams, documenting the exposure and predicted risk, and compared these to the habitat and in situ biota. We found that the parameters (e.g., habitat quality and total perturbations hereunder total suspended solids (TSS) and other abiotic and biotic stressors) contributed to the abundance of biota rather than the predicted risk from AE and FA. Moreover, the documented natural de novo synthesis and rapid degradation of FA highlight the need to carefully consider the procedures for environmental risk assessment of naturally occurring compounds such as FA, e.g. in line with the added risk concept known from metal risk assessment. © 2013 The Authors.

Mudge S.M.,Exponent UK | DeLeo P.C.,American Cleaning Institute | Dyer S.D.,Procter and Gamble
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Samples of influent, effluent and sediments of the receiving waters of eight WWTPs were collected in each of three eco-regions of the USA, a total of 24 facilities. Six different treatment technologies were included to determine the fate of anthropogenic fatty alcohols. The lipids were analysed by compound-specific stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry. There were significant differences in the profiles of the influent among eco-regions, due to differences in the products used within the catchment, the diets of the inhabitants, or in-pipe processes. The sediments of all the receiving waters had similar fatty alcohol profiles, with terrestrial plant matter dominating and secondary contributions from algal and bacterial synthesis. Any contributions from the WWTP liquid effluents were small (<. 1%) and not from the original fatty alcohols suite in the influent. These compounds might have the same chain lengths, but they have different stable isotopic signatures. The type of secondary treatment did not affect the removal of fatty alcohols and the sediments of the receiving waters were dominated by terrestrial plant inputs; the eco-region may affect the profile of the influents but not the stable isotopes. The ecological risk from the use of these particular chemicals, which are disposed of down the drain, is minimal. © 2013.

PubMed | Procter and Gamble, University of Cincinnati, Waterborne Environmental and American Cleaning Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Integrated environmental assessment and management | Year: 2016

The in-stream exposure model iSTREEM() , a Web-based model made freely available to the public by the American Cleaning Institute, provides a means to estimate concentrations of down-the-drain chemicals in effluent, receiving waters, and drinking water intakes across national and regional scales under mean annual and low-flow conditions. We provide an overview of the evolution and utility of the iSTREEM model as a screening-level risk assessment tool relevant for down-the-drain products. The spatial nature of the model, integrating point locations of facilities along a hydrologic network, provides a powerful framework to assess environmental exposure and risk in a spatial context. A case study compared national distributions of modeled concentrations of the fragrance 1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8,-hexamethylcyclopenta--2-benzopyran (HHCB) and the insect repellent N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) to available monitoring data at comparable flow conditions. The iSTREEM low-flow model results yielded a conservative distribution of values, whereas the mean-flow model results more closely resembled the concentration distribution of monitoring data. We demonstrate how model results can be used to construct a conservative estimation of the distribution of chemical concentrations for effluents and streams leading to the derivation of a predicted environmental concentration (PEC) using the high end of the concentration distribution (e.g., 90th percentile). Data requirements, assumptions, and applications of iSTREEM are discussed in the context of other down-the-drain modeling approaches to enhance understanding of comparative advantages and uncertainties for prospective users interested in exposure modeling for ecological risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:782-792. 2016 SETAC.

PubMed | American Cleaning Institute
Type: | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2016

Substantial benefits are realized through the use of read-across and in silico techniques to fill data gaps for structurally similar substances. Considerable experience in applying these techniques was gained under two voluntary high production volume (HPV) chemical programs - the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Cooperative Chemicals Assessment Programme (with the cooperation of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys HPV Challenge Program. These programs led to the compilation and public availability of baseline sets of health and environmental effects data for thousands of chemicals. The American Cleaning Institutes (ACI) contribution to these national and global efforts included the compilation of these datasets for 261 substances. Chemicals that have structural similarities are likely to have similar environmental fate, physical-chemical and toxicological properties, which was confirmed by examining available data from across the range of substances within categories of structurally similar HPV chemicals. These similarities allowed the utilization of read-across, trend analysis techniques and qualitative structure activity relationship ((Q)SAR) tools to fill data gaps. This paper presents the first quantification of actual benefits resulting from avoided testing through the use of read-across and in silico tools. Specifically, in the evaluation of these 261 noted substances, the use of 100,000-150,000 test animals and the expenditures of $50,000,000 to $70,000,000 (US) were avoided.

News Article | November 16, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

WASHINGTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The 2017 American Cleaning Institute (ACI) Annual Meeting & Industry Convention will feature the return of the Innovation & New Technology Showcase. ACI’s 91st Convention takes place January 23-28, 2017 at the Grande Lakes Orlando (Florida). The Innovation Panel will be held Friday, January 27 during ACI Convention Week. “The Showcase is designed to give ACI member companies the opportunity to shine a spotlight on new product, ingredient, packaging or distribution innovations and technologies,” said Ernie Rosenberg, ACI President & CEO. “ACI’s first Showcase in January 2016 was highly rated and is returning due to popular demand.” To participate, the presenter must be employed by a company that is an active, fully-paid member of ACI and registered for the ACI Convention. Speakers will be given 10 minutes for their presentations. The presentation should support the Convention theme, Responding to Cleaning Needs for All Generations. It should describe how the product, chemistry, packaging or distribution innovation demonstrates commercial advances within our supply chain and not be an explicit promotion for the company, nor contain derogatory messaging about other industry competitors, technologies, or chemistries. Companies interested in participating must submit a one-page abstract of their presentations to ACI by December 1, 2016. The abstract should include the proposed title, speaker name, company, contact information and a brief presentation summary. Each submission will be carefully considered and will be kept confidential. All submissions are subject to antitrust constraints and must not contain any competitively sensitive or non-public information. Proposals should be submitted to meetings@cleaninginstitute.org. ACI will select up to six presenters based on the innovation, technology and/or advancement detailed in the one-page abstract. Selected speakers will be notified by December 9, 2016. Only one speaker per submission. Registration for the 2017 Convention is open for ACI member companies online at www.cleaninginstitute.org. For more information, please contact Nancy Bock, Senior Vice President, Meetings, at meetings@cleaninginstitute.org. The American Cleaning Institute® (ACI) is the Home of the U.S. Cleaning Products Industry® and represents the $30 billion U.S. cleaning products market. ACI members include the formulators of soaps, detergents, and general cleaning products used in household, commercial, industrial and institutional settings; companies that supply ingredients and finished packaging for these products; and oleochemical producers. ACI (www.cleaninginstitute.org) and its members are dedicated to improving health and the quality of life through sustainable cleaning products and practices.

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