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Wibbertmann A.,Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine | Mangelsdorf I.,Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine | Gamon K.,Cognis GmbH | Sedlak R.,American Cleaning Institute
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2011

The category of the anionic surfactants (ANS) consisting of 46 alkyl sulfates, 6 primary alkane sulfonates, and 9 α-olefin sulfonates has been assessed under the high production volume (HPV) chemicals program of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 2007. In this review the toxicological properties of these chemicals are summarized. The chemicals of this category are used predominantly in detergents, household cleaning products, and cosmetics. These chemicals show low acute and repeat dose toxicity. There was no evidence of genetic or reproductive toxicity, or carcinogenicity. There also was no indication for sensitizing properties. Skin and eye irritating effects in consumers are not to be expected. For consumers, the calculated body burden is about 10,000 times lower than the lowest NOAEL value in experimental animals, so that adverse effects caused by substances of the ANS category can be excluded. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Mudge S.M.,Exponent UK | Deleo P.C.,American Cleaning Institute | Dyer S.D.,Procter and Gamble
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2012

Fatty alcohols are naturally produced hydrocarbons present in all living organisms. They are also used in detergent and cosmetic formulations, may be sourced from either petroleum or biological materials, and are typically disposed of down the drain. This study was conducted on the Luray catchment, Virginia, USA, where sales data indicate that approximately 2kg of fatty alcohols from detergent enter the wastewater every day. Reconstructing fatty alcohols in the influent on the basis of sales data indicated a mix of odd and even chain compounds, with C12 being dominant. This profile was influenced strongly by liquid laundry detergents (69%). Sediment and soil samples from the catchment were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry to determine the δ13C and δ2H signatures. The long-chain components in agricultural soils and river sediments were distinguishable clearly from the algal fatty alcohols produced within the river system. The wastewater was a mixture of fecal and detergent sources of fatty alcohols in a ratio of 75:25%. The fatty alcohols in the effluent had different stable isotopic signatures and chain-length profiles from the influent, indicating that these compounds are not the same as those that entered the treatment plant. The total quantity of fatty alcohols leaving the treatment plant through the effluent pipe was low compared with the input. Analysis of the contributions based on the stable isotopes and profiles suggests that of the fatty alcohols present in the river system downstream of the treatment plant, 84% were derived from terrestrial plant production, 15% came from in situ algal synthesis, and 1% were derived from the effluent. © 2012 SETAC.


Mudge S.M.,Exponent UK | DeLeo P.C.,American Cleaning Institute | Dyer S.D.,Procter and Gamble
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Samples of influent, effluent and sediments of the receiving waters of eight WWTPs were collected in each of three eco-regions of the USA, a total of 24 facilities. Six different treatment technologies were included to determine the fate of anthropogenic fatty alcohols. The lipids were analysed by compound-specific stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry. There were significant differences in the profiles of the influent among eco-regions, due to differences in the products used within the catchment, the diets of the inhabitants, or in-pipe processes. The sediments of all the receiving waters had similar fatty alcohol profiles, with terrestrial plant matter dominating and secondary contributions from algal and bacterial synthesis. Any contributions from the WWTP liquid effluents were small (<. 1%) and not from the original fatty alcohols suite in the influent. These compounds might have the same chain lengths, but they have different stable isotopic signatures. The type of secondary treatment did not affect the removal of fatty alcohols and the sediments of the receiving waters were dominated by terrestrial plant inputs; the eco-region may affect the profile of the influents but not the stable isotopes. The ecological risk from the use of these particular chemicals, which are disposed of down the drain, is minimal. © 2013.


News Article | September 2, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

The federal government Friday banned more than a dozen chemicals long-used in antibacterial soaps, saying manufacturers failed to show they are safe and kill germs. "We have no scientific evidence that they are any better than plain soap and water," said Janet Woodcock, the Food and Drug Administration' drug center director, in a statement. Friday's decision primarily targets two once-ubiquitous ingredients — triclosan and triclocarban — that some limited animal research suggests can interfere with hormone levels and spur drug-resistant bacteria. The chemicals have long been under scrutiny, and a cleaning industry spokesman said most companies have already removed the now banned 19 chemicals from their soaps and washes. The FDA said it will allow companies more time to provide data on three other chemicals, which are still in a majority of products sold today. The agency told manufacturers nearly three years ago that they must show their products are safe and effective. Regulators said Friday the data submitted for the chemicals did not meet federal standards for proving safety and effectiveness. "Consumers may think antibacterial washes are more effective at preventing the spread of germs," Woodcock said in a statement. "In fact, some data suggests that antibacterial ingredients may do more harm than good over the long-term." The FDA ban comes more than 40 years after Congress asked the agency to evaluate triclosan and dozens of other antiseptic ingredients. Ultimately, the government agreed to publish its findings only after a three-year legal battle with an environmental group, the Natural Resources Defense Council, which accused the FDA of delaying a decision on the safety of triclosan. The group cited research by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that found triclosan in the urine of three-quarters of Americans tested for various chemicals. The FDA is now undertaking a sweeping reevaluation of soaps and washes used by consumers and health professionals. The American Cleaning Institute, a cleaning chemical association, disputed the FDA's findings, saying in a statement "the FDA already has in its hands data that shows the safety and effectiveness of antibacterial soaps." The group's spokesman said companies are planning to submit data on three chemicals currently used by industry: benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride and chloroxylenol. The FDA delayed making a decision on those chemicals for one year. The FDA decision does not apply to hand sanitizers, most of which use alcohol rather than antibacterial chemicals.


Konnecker G.,Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine | Regelmann J.,Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine | Belanger S.,Procter and Gamble | Gamon K.,Cognis GmbH | Sedlak R.,American Cleaning Institute
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2011

This paper summarizes the environmental hazard assessment of physicochemical properties, environmental fate and behavior and the ecotoxicity of a category of 61 anionic surfactants (ANS), comprised of alkyl sulfates (AS), primary alkane sulfonates (PAS) and alpha-olefin sulfonates (AOS) under the High Production Volume Chemicals Program of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).The most important common structural feature of the category members examined here is the presence of a predominantly linear aliphatic hydrocarbon chain with a polar sulfate or sulfonate group, neutralized with a counter-ion.The hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain (with a length between C 8 and C 18) and the polar sulfate or sulfonate groups confer surfactant properties and enable the commercial use of these substances as anionic surfactants. The close structural similarities lead to physico-chemical properties and environmental fate characteristics which follow a regular pattern and justify the applied read-across within a category approach. Common physical and/or biological properties result in structurally similar breakdown products and are, together with the surfactant properties, responsible for similar environmental behavior. The structural similarities result in the same mode of ecotoxic action. Within each of the three sub-categories of ANS the most important parameter influencing ecotoxicity is the varying length of the alkyl chain. Although the counter-ion may also influence the physico-chemical properties, there is no indication that it significantly affects chemical reactivity, environmental fate and behavior or ecotoxicity of these chemicals.Deduced from physico-chemical and surfactancy properties, the main target compartment for the substances of the ANS category is the hydrosphere. They are quantitatively removed in waste water treatment plants, mainly by biodegradation. Quantitative removal in biological treatment plants is reflected by low AS concentrations measured in effluents of waste water treatment plants (mostly below 10μg/L). In addition, bioaccumulation of ANS does not exceed regulatory triggers based upon experimental data.A considerable number of reliable aquatic toxicity data for the whole ANS category are available, including chronic and subchronic data for species of all trophic levels.Based upon the highest quality data in hand, there appears to be no singularly most sensitive trophic level in tests on the toxicity of alkyl sulfates, with a large degree of overlap among algae, invertebrates and fish. Algae proved to be more variable in sensitivity to alkyl sulfate exposure compared to fish and daphnia. The key study for the aquatic hazard assessment is a chronic test on Ceriodaphnia dubia, which covers a range of the alkyl chain length from C 12 to C 18. A parabolic response was observed, with the C 14 chain length being the most toxic (7d-NOEC=0.045mg/L). Responses of aquatic communities to C 12 AS and C 14-15 AS have been studied in high quality stream mesocosm studies containing a broad range of species and ecological interactions. These studies are regarded as a better approximation to reality when extrapolating to the environment. The 56-d chronic NOEC for C 12 AS and C 14-15 AS were 0.224 and 0.106mg/L, respectively, based on integrated assessments of periphyton (algal, bacterial and protozoan) and invertebrate communities.Taking into account the rapid biodegradation of the ANS compounds as well as the low concentrations measured in different environmental compartments, this category of surfactants is of low concern for the environment. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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