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Torre L.A.,American Cancer Society Surveillance and Health Services Research | Siegel R.L.,American Cancer Society Surveillance and Health Services Research | Ward E.M.,American Cancer Society Intramural Research | Jemal A.,American Cancer Society Surveillance and Health Services Research
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2016

There are limited published data on recent cancer incidence and mortality trends worldwide. We used the International Agency for Research on Cancer's CANCERMondial clearing-house to present age-standardized cancer incidence and death rates for 2003-2007. We also present trends in incidence through 2007 and mortality through 2012 for select countries from five continents. High-income countries (HIC) continue to have the highest incidence rates for all sites, as well as for lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer, although some low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) now count among those with the highest rates. Mortality rates from these cancers are declining in many HICs while they are increasing in LMICs. LMICs have the highest rates of stomach, liver, esophageal, and cervical cancer. Although rates remain high in HICs, they are plateauing or decreasing for the most common cancers due to decreases in known risk factors, screening and early detection, and improved treatment (mortality only). In contrast, rates in several LMICs are increasing for these cancers due to increases in smoking, excess body weight, and physical inactivity. LMICs also have a disproportionate burden of infection-related cancers. Applied cancer control measures are needed to reduce rates in HICs and arrest the growing burden in LMICs. ©2015 AACR. Source

DeSantis C.E.,American Cancer Society Intramural Research | Bray F.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Ferlay J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Lortet-Tieulent J.,American Cancer Society Intramural Research | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide. Herein, we examine global trends in female breast cancer rates using the most up-to-date data available. Methods: Breast cancer incidence and mortality estimates were obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012 (globocan.iarc.fr). We analyzed trends from 1993 onward using incidence data from 39 countries from the International Agency for Research on Cancer and mortality data from 57 countries from the World Health Organization. Results: Of 32 countries with incidence and mortality data, rates in the recent period diverged-with incidence increasing and mortality decreasing-in nine countries mainly in Northern/ Western Europe. Both incidence and mortality decreased in France, Israel, Italy, Norway, and Spain. In contrast, incidence and death rates both increased in Colombia, Ecuador, and Japan. Death rates also increased in Brazil, Egypt, Guatemala, Kuwait, Mauritius, Mexico, and Moldova. Conclusions: Breast cancer mortality rates are decreasing in most high-income countries, despite increasing or stable incidence rates. In contrast and of concern are the increasing incidence and mortality rates in a number of countries, particularly those undergoing rapid changes in human development. Wide variations in breast cancer rates and trends reflect differences in patterns of risk factors and access to and availability of early detection and timely treatment. Impact: Increased awareness about breast cancer and the benefits of early detection and improved access to treatment must be prioritized to successfully implement breast cancer control programs, particularly in transitioning countries. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

Islami F.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Islami F.,American Cancer Society Intramural Research | Ward E.M.,American Cancer Society Intramural Research | Jacobs E.J.,American Cancer Society Intramural Research | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2015

Purpose: Death rates for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in the USA, vary substantially by the level of education at the national level, but this has not previously been analyzed by state. Methods: We examined age-standardized lung cancer death rates by educational attainment, race/ethnicity, and state in men and women (aged 25–64 years) in the USA in 2008–2010 and estimated the proportion of potentially avoidable premature lung cancer deaths for each state if rates were reduced to those achieved among more educated non-Hispanic whites in five states with low lung cancer rates, using data on 134,869 lung cancer deaths. Results: Age-standardized lung cancer mortality rates differed substantially by state and education level. Among non-Hispanic white men, for example, rates per 100,000 ranged from below 6 in more educated men (≥16 years of education) in Utah, Colorado, and Montana to >75 in less educated men (≤12 years of education) in Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Kentucky. An estimated 73 % of lung cancer deaths in the USA (32,700 deaths annually in 25- to 64-year-old individuals alone) would be prevented. This proportion was ≥85 % among men in Arkansas, Alabama, Kentucky, and Mississippi, and ≥80 % among women in West Virginia and Kentucky. Conclusion: Most premature lung cancer deaths in the USA are potentially avoidable. As most of these deaths can be attributed to smoking, our findings underscore the importance of increasing tobacco control measures in high-risk states and targeting tobacco control interventions to less educated populations in all states. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Torre L.A.,American Cancer Society Intramural Research | Siegel R.L.,American Cancer Society Intramural Research | Ward E.M.,American Cancer Society Intramural Research | Jemal A.,American Cancer Society Intramural Research
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: There is no recent comprehensive global analysis of lung cancer mortality in women. We describe contemporary mortality rates and trends among women globally. Methods: We used the World Health Organization's Cancer Mortality Database covering 65 populations on six continents to calculate age-standardized (1960 Segi world standard) lung cancer death rates during 2006 to 2010 and annual percent change in rates for available years from 1985 to 2011 and for the most recent five data years by population and age group (30-49 and 50-74 years). Results: Lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) among young women (30-49 years) during 2006 to 2010 ranged from 0.7 in Costa Rica to 14.8 in Hungary. Rates among young women were stable or declining in 47 of 52 populations examined. Rates among women 50 to 74 years ranged from 8.8 in Georgia and Egypt to 120.0 in Scotland. In both age groups, rates were highest in parts of Europe (Scotland, Hungary, Denmark) and North America and lowest in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Rates in older women were increasing for more than half (36/64) of populations examined, including most countries in Southern, Eastern, and Western Europe and South America. Conclusions: Although widespread reductions in lung cancer in young women provide evidence of tobacco control success, rates continue to increase among older women in many countries. Impact: More concentrated efforts to initiate or expand tobacco control programs in these countries globally will be required to attenuate the future lung cancer burden. ©2014 AACR. Source

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