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Nguyen B.T.,American Cancer Society Inc | Powell L.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objective To examine the effect of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on adults' energy intake and dietary indicators. Design Individual-level fixed-effects regression model estimation based on two different days of dietary intake data was used. Setting Parallel to the rising obesity epidemic in the USA, there has been a marked upward trend in total energy intake derived from food away from home. Subjects The full sample included 12 528 respondents aged 20-64 years who completed 24 h dietary recall interviews for both day 1 and day 2 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010. Results Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with an increase in daily total energy intake of 813·75 kJ (194·49 kcal) and 858·04 kJ (205·21 kcal) and with higher intakes of saturated fat (3·48 g and 2·52 g) and Na (296·38 mg and 451·06 mg). Individual characteristics moderated the impacts of restaurant food consumption with adverse impacts on net energy intake being larger for black adults compared with their white and Hispanic counterparts and greater for middle-income v. high-income adults. Conclusions Adults' fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption was associated with higher daily total energy intake and poorer dietary indicators. © The Authors 2014.

Cleeland C.S.,University of Houston | Allen J.D.,Friends of Cancer Research | Roberts S.A.,Friends of Cancer Research | Brell J.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012

Our understanding of the biology of cancer and the application of this knowledge to cancer treatment has greatly outpaced what we know of the biology underlying the symptoms and toxic effects that therapies produce. These adverse effects of therapy cause substantial discomfort and distress to patients and their families, limit treatment tolerability and can persist indefinitely in post-treatment survivorship. Despite these concerns, little research effort is targeted at documenting the nature of these effects. Similarly, limited efforts are being made in the drug-development arena to identify or develop treatments that might prevent or reduce toxicities. A panel of clinicians and researchers as well as representatives from advocacy groups, federal agencies and the pharmaceutical industry was convened to identify gaps in cancer treatment toxicity research and to provide direction for future action. With an emphasis on coordinating multidisciplinary efforts, this panel has presented a strategy to increase funding for the field and develop a coherent research agenda. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Willis G.B.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Smith T.,American Cancer Society Inc
Medical Care | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND:: Although response rates for physician surveys have been decreasing, it is not clear whether this trend is associated with an increase in survey nonresponse bias. One means for assessing potential bias is to conduct a level-of-effort analysis that compares data estimates for respondents interviewed during the first recruitment contact to respondents interviewed at later recontact cycles. METHODS:: We compared early and later responders within the Survey of Physician Attitudes Regarding the Care of Cancer Survivors with respect to both demographic characteristics and aggregate survey responses to items on survivor care knowledge, attitudes, and practices. RESULTS:: Accumulating additional completions across each of 4 respondent contact attempts improved weighted response rates (35.0%, 46.9%, 52.3%, and 57.6%, respectively). However, the majority of estimates for analyzed variables remained relatively unchanged over additional cycles of recontact. CONCLUSIONS:: We conclude that additional respondent recontact attempts, especially beyond a single recontact, had little influence on key data distributions, suggesting that these were ineffective in reducing nonresponse bias. Further, the conduct of additional recruitment recontacts was an inefficient means for increasing statistical power. For the conduct of physician surveys, a practice that may in some cases be cost-effective, while also controlling total survey error, is to establish a larger initial sample; to either eliminate nonresponse follow-up or to limit this to one recontact; and to accept a somewhat lower final overall survey response rate. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Parkin D.M.,University of Oxford | Bray F.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Ferlay J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Jemal A.,American Cancer Society Inc
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Noncommunicable diseases, and especially cancers, are recognized as an increasing problem for low and middle income countries. Effective control programs require adequate information on the size, nature, and evolution of the health problem that they pose. Methods: We present estimates of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Africa in 2012, derived from "GLOBOCAN 2012," published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results: There were 847,000 new cancer cases (6% of the world total) and 591,000 deaths (7.2% of the world total) in the 54 countries of Africa in 2012, with about three quarters in the 47 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. While the cancer profiles often differ markedly between regions, the most common cancers in men were prostate (16.4% of new cancers), liver (10.7%), and Kaposi sarcoma (6.7%); in women, by far the most important are cancers of the breast (27.6% of all cancers) and cervix uteri (20.4%). Conclusions: There are still deficiencies in surveillance systems, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and, specifically, of their most vital component, population-based cancer registries. With the number of annual cancer cases and deaths likely to increase by at least 70% by 2030, there is a pressing need for a coordinated approach to improving the extent and quality of services for cancer control in Africa, and better surveillance systems with which they can be planned and monitored. Impact: The results are the best data currently available and provide a reasonable appraisal of the cancer situation in Africa. ©2014 AACR. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

Cohen E.E.W.,University of California at San Diego | Lamonte S.J.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Erb N.L.,American Cancer Society Inc | Beckman K.L.,American Cancer Society | And 8 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2016

Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The American Cancer Society Head and Neck Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline was developed to assist primary care clinicians and other health practitioners with the care of head and neck cancer survivors, including monitoring for recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of long-term and late effects, health promotion, and care coordination. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015, and a multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, dentistry, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, clinical psychology, speech-language pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, the patient perspective, and nursing was assembled. While the guideline is based on a systematic review of the current literature, most evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong recommendation. Therefore, recommendations should be viewed as consensus-based management strategies for assisting patients with physical and psychosocial effects of head and neck cancer and its treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:203-239. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

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