American Cancer Society Inc

Atlanta, GA, United States

American Cancer Society Inc

Atlanta, GA, United States
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Cleeland C.S.,University of Houston | Allen J.D.,Friends of Cancer Research | Roberts S.A.,Friends of Cancer Research | Brell J.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012

Our understanding of the biology of cancer and the application of this knowledge to cancer treatment has greatly outpaced what we know of the biology underlying the symptoms and toxic effects that therapies produce. These adverse effects of therapy cause substantial discomfort and distress to patients and their families, limit treatment tolerability and can persist indefinitely in post-treatment survivorship. Despite these concerns, little research effort is targeted at documenting the nature of these effects. Similarly, limited efforts are being made in the drug-development arena to identify or develop treatments that might prevent or reduce toxicities. A panel of clinicians and researchers as well as representatives from advocacy groups, federal agencies and the pharmaceutical industry was convened to identify gaps in cancer treatment toxicity research and to provide direction for future action. With an emphasis on coordinating multidisciplinary efforts, this panel has presented a strategy to increase funding for the field and develop a coherent research agenda. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Willis G.B.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Smith T.,American Cancer Society Inc.
Medical Care | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND:: Although response rates for physician surveys have been decreasing, it is not clear whether this trend is associated with an increase in survey nonresponse bias. One means for assessing potential bias is to conduct a level-of-effort analysis that compares data estimates for respondents interviewed during the first recruitment contact to respondents interviewed at later recontact cycles. METHODS:: We compared early and later responders within the Survey of Physician Attitudes Regarding the Care of Cancer Survivors with respect to both demographic characteristics and aggregate survey responses to items on survivor care knowledge, attitudes, and practices. RESULTS:: Accumulating additional completions across each of 4 respondent contact attempts improved weighted response rates (35.0%, 46.9%, 52.3%, and 57.6%, respectively). However, the majority of estimates for analyzed variables remained relatively unchanged over additional cycles of recontact. CONCLUSIONS:: We conclude that additional respondent recontact attempts, especially beyond a single recontact, had little influence on key data distributions, suggesting that these were ineffective in reducing nonresponse bias. Further, the conduct of additional recruitment recontacts was an inefficient means for increasing statistical power. For the conduct of physician surveys, a practice that may in some cases be cost-effective, while also controlling total survey error, is to establish a larger initial sample; to either eliminate nonresponse follow-up or to limit this to one recontact; and to accept a somewhat lower final overall survey response rate. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Cohen E.E.W.,University of California at San Diego | Lamonte S.J.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Erb N.L.,American Cancer Society Inc. | Beckman K.L.,American Cancer Society | And 8 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2016

Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The American Cancer Society Head and Neck Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline was developed to assist primary care clinicians and other health practitioners with the care of head and neck cancer survivors, including monitoring for recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of long-term and late effects, health promotion, and care coordination. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015, and a multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, dentistry, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, clinical psychology, speech-language pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, the patient perspective, and nursing was assembled. While the guideline is based on a systematic review of the current literature, most evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong recommendation. Therefore, recommendations should be viewed as consensus-based management strategies for assisting patients with physical and psychosocial effects of head and neck cancer and its treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:203-239. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

Naishadham D.,American Cancer Society Inc. | Lansdorp-Vogelaar I.,Rotterdam University | Siegel R.,American Cancer Society Inc. | Cokkinides V.,American Cancer Society Inc. | Jemal A.,American Cancer Society Inc.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2011

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates have been decreasing for many decades in the United States, with the decrease accelerating in the most recent time period. The extent to which this decrease varies across states and its influence on the geographic patterns of rates is unknown. Methods: We analyzed the temporal trend in age-standardized CRC death rates for each state from 1990 to 2007 using joinpoint regression. We also examined the change in death rates between 1990-1994 and 2003-2007 using rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals and illustrated the change in pattern using maps. The relationship between the change in mortality rates and CRC screening rates for 2004 by state was examined using Pearson's correlation. Results: CRC mortality rates significantly decreased in all states except Mississippi between 1990 and 2007 based on the joinpoint model. The decrease in death rates between 1990-1994 and 2003-2007 ranged from 9% in Alabama to greater than 33% in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, and Alaska; Mississippi and Wyoming showed no significant decrease. Generally, the northeastern states showed the largest decreases, whereas southern states showed the smallest decreases. The highest CRC mortality rates shifted from the northeastern states during 1990 to 1994 to the southern states along the Appalachian corridor during 2003 to 2007. The decrease in CRC mortality rates by state correlated strongly with uptake of screening (r = -0.65, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Progress in reducing CRC mortality varies across states, with the Northeast showing the most progress and the South showing the least progress. Impact: These findings highlight the need for wider dissemination of CRC screening. ©2011 AACR.

Liber A.C.,American Cancer Society Inc. | Ross H.,University of Cape Town | Omar M.,National University of Malaysia | Chaloupka F.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Chaloupka F.J.,Collaborating Center
Tobacco Control | Year: 2015

Objectives Study the effects of the 2011 Malaysian minimum price law (MPL) on prices of licit and illicit cigarette brands. Identify barriers to the MPL achieving positive public health effects. Methods The International Tobacco Control Project’s Southeast Asia survey collected information on Malaysian smokers’ cigarette purchases (n=7520) in five survey waves between 2005 and 2012. Consumption-weighted comparisons of proportions tests and adjusted Wald tests were used to evaluate changes over time in violation rates of the inflation-adjusted MPL, the proportion of illicit cigarette purchases and mean prices. Results After the passage of the MPL, the proportion of licit brand cigarette purchases that were below the inflation-adjusted 2011 minimum price level fell substantially (before 3.9%, after 1.8%, p=0.002), while violation of the MPL for illicit brand cigarette purchases was unchanged (before 89.8%, after 91.9%, p=0.496). At the same time, the mean real price of licit cigarettes rose ( p=0.006), while the mean real price of illicit cigarettes remained unchanged ( p=0.134). The proportion of illicit cigarette purchases rose as well (before 13.4%, after 16.5%, p=0.041). Discussion The MPL appears not to have meaningfully changed cigarette prices in Malaysia, as licit brand prices remained well above and illicit brand prices remained well below the minimum price level before and after MPL’s implementation. The increasing proportion of illicit cigarettes on the market may have undermined any positive health effects of the Malaysian MPL. The illicit cigarette trade must be addressed before a full evaluation of the Malaysian MPL’s impact on public health can take place. The authors encourage the continued use of specific excise tax increases to reliably increase the price and decrease the consumption of cigarettes in Malaysia and elsewhere. © 2015 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

Nguyen B.T.,American Cancer Society Inc. | Powell L.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objective To examine the effect of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on adults' energy intake and dietary indicators. Design Individual-level fixed-effects regression model estimation based on two different days of dietary intake data was used. Setting Parallel to the rising obesity epidemic in the USA, there has been a marked upward trend in total energy intake derived from food away from home. Subjects The full sample included 12 528 respondents aged 20-64 years who completed 24 h dietary recall interviews for both day 1 and day 2 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010. Results Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with an increase in daily total energy intake of 813·75 kJ (194·49 kcal) and 858·04 kJ (205·21 kcal) and with higher intakes of saturated fat (3·48 g and 2·52 g) and Na (296·38 mg and 451·06 mg). Individual characteristics moderated the impacts of restaurant food consumption with adverse impacts on net energy intake being larger for black adults compared with their white and Hispanic counterparts and greater for middle-income v. high-income adults. Conclusions Adults' fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption was associated with higher daily total energy intake and poorer dietary indicators. © The Authors 2014.

Parkin D.M.,University of Oxford | Bray F.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Ferlay J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Jemal A.,American Cancer Society Inc.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Noncommunicable diseases, and especially cancers, are recognized as an increasing problem for low and middle income countries. Effective control programs require adequate information on the size, nature, and evolution of the health problem that they pose. Methods: We present estimates of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Africa in 2012, derived from "GLOBOCAN 2012," published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results: There were 847,000 new cancer cases (6% of the world total) and 591,000 deaths (7.2% of the world total) in the 54 countries of Africa in 2012, with about three quarters in the 47 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. While the cancer profiles often differ markedly between regions, the most common cancers in men were prostate (16.4% of new cancers), liver (10.7%), and Kaposi sarcoma (6.7%); in women, by far the most important are cancers of the breast (27.6% of all cancers) and cervix uteri (20.4%). Conclusions: There are still deficiencies in surveillance systems, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and, specifically, of their most vital component, population-based cancer registries. With the number of annual cancer cases and deaths likely to increase by at least 70% by 2030, there is a pressing need for a coordinated approach to improving the extent and quality of services for cancer control in Africa, and better surveillance systems with which they can be planned and monitored. Impact: The results are the best data currently available and provide a reasonable appraisal of the cancer situation in Africa. ©2014 AACR. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

Duffy S.W.,Queen Mary, University of London | Smith R.A.,American Cancer Society Inc
Journal of Medical Screening | Year: 2015

Objectives: To investigate the consequences of different cancer screening trial designs and follow-up options for accuracy of the estimate of the effect of screening on disease-specific mortality. Methods: We consider a randomized trial of breast cancer screening with a screening phase in which the intervention group is offered screening and the control group is not, and optional further follow-up after this screening phase. Postulating a lead time effect similar to that observed in breast cancer screening trials, we calculate the observed relative risk of disease-specific mortality and compare this with the true relative risk, for four design options: (1) no follow-up beyond the screening phase, ie. the screening phase and the observation period are identical; (2) follow-up continuing beyond the screening phase, all cancer-specific deaths counted, including those diagnosed after the screening phase; (3) follow-up continuing beyond the screening phase, but with only deaths from cancers diagnosed during the screening phase included; and (4) follow-up continuing beyond the screening phase, a single screen of the control group conducted at the end of the screening phase, and only deaths from cancers diagnosed during the screening phase in both arms up to completion of the single control screen included. Results: All designs in which follow-up for mortality continues beyond the screening phase incurred a bias against screening. The design in which the control group undergoes a single screen at the end of the screening phase was least biased in the example used. Conclusions: The expedient of a single screen of the control group at the end of the screening phase has acceptable accuracy, but is still slightly conservatively biased. © 2015, The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:

Sineshaw H.M.,American Cancer Society Inc. | Robbins A.S.,American Cancer Society Inc. | Jemal A.,American Cancer Society Inc.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2014

Purpose: Previous studies documented significant increase in overall survival for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) since the late 1990s coinciding with the introduction and dissemination of new treatments. We examined whether this survival increase differed across major racial/ethnic populations and age groups. Methods: We identified patients diagnosed with primary metastatic colorectal cancer during 1992-2009 from 13 population-based cancer registries of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, which cover about 14 % of the US population. The 5-year cause-specific survival rates were calculated using SEER*Stat software. Results: From 1992-1997 to 2004-2009, 5-year cause-specific survival rates increased significantly from 9.8 % (95 % CI 9.2-10.4) to 15.7 % (95 % CI 14.7-16.6) in non-Hispanic whites and from 11.4 % (95 % CI 9.4-13.6) to 17.7 % (95 % CI 15.1-20.5) in non-Hispanic Asians, but not in non-Hispanic blacks [from 8.6 % (95 % CI 7.2-10.1) to 9.8 % (95 % CI 8.1-11.8)] or Hispanics [from 14.0 % (95 % CI 11.8-16.3) to 16.4 % (95 % CI 14.0-19.0)]. By age group, survival rates increased significantly for the 20-64-year age group and 65 years or older age group in non-Hispanic whites, although the improvement in the older non-Hispanic whites was substantially smaller. Rates also increased in non-Hispanic Asians for the 20-64-year age group although marginally nonsignificant. In contrast, survival rates did not show significant increases in both younger and older age groups in non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics. Conclusion: Non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and older patients diagnosed with metastatic CRC have not equally benefitted from the introduction and dissemination of new treatments. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

Sineshaw H.M.,American Cancer Society Inc. | Gaudet M.,American Cancer Society Inc. | Ward E.M.,American Cancer Society Inc. | Flanders W.D.,American Cancer Society Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2014

To estimate the odds of breast cancer subtypes in minority populations versus non-Hispanic (NH) whites stratified by socioeconomic status (SES) [a composite of individual-level SES (insurance status) and area-level SES (median household income quartile from 2000 U.S. Census data)] using a large nationwide cancer database. We used the National Cancer Data Base to identify breast cancer cases diagnosed in 2010 and 2011, the only 2 years since U.S. cancer registries uniformly began collecting HER2 results. Breast cancer cases were classified into five subtypes based on hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 status: HR+/HER2-, HR+/HER2+, HR-/HER2+ (HER2-overexpressing), HR-/HER2- (TN), and unknown. A polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) comparing the odds of non-HR+/HER2-subtypes to HR+/HER2- for racial/ethnic groups controlling for and stratifying by SES, using a composite of insurance status and area-level income. Compared with NH whites, NH blacks and Hispanics were 84 % (OR = 1.84; 95 % CI 1.77-1.92) and 17 % (OR = 1.17; 95 % CI 1.11-1.24) more likely to have TN subtype versus HR+/HER2-, respectively. Asian/Pacific Islanders (API) had 1.45 times greater odds of being diagnosed with HER2-overexpressing subtype versus HR+/HER2- compared with NH whites (OR = 1.45; 95 % CI 1.31-1.61). We found similar ORs for race in high and low strata of SES. In a large nationwide hospital-based dataset, we found higher odds of having TN breast cancer in black women and of HER2-overexpressing in API compared with white women in every level of SES. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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