Time filter

Source Type

News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

OAK RIDGE, Tenn., Feb. 14, 2017 -- Two researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sergei Kalinin and Mariappan Parans Paranthaman, have been elected fellows of the Materials Research Society (MRS). The professional society, which limits fellows to 0.2 percent of the MRS membership, is dedicated to the worldwide advancement of materials research. Kalinin is director of ORNL's Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials and a distinguished staff member at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, and is an adjunct associate professor of materials science and engineering at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. He is cited for "pioneering contributions to the understanding of nanoscale ferroelectric, transport, and electrochemical phenomena in complex oxides through the development of scanning probes techniques." At ORNL Kalinin develops novel scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques to measure and control local structure and properties of materials. Kalinin studies electromechanical and transport phenomena in functional oxides and molecular systems and applications of big, deep, and smart data methods for physical imaging. His accomplishments include a 2009 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, a Royal Microscopical Society Medal for SPM and three R&D 100 awards. He has authored more than 500 publications and over 15 patents on various aspects of SPM. Kalinin joined ORNL in 2002 as a Eugene P. Wigner Fellow after earning bachelor's and master's degrees in chemistry and materials science from Moscow State University and a doctoral degree in materials science from the University of Pennsylvania. Paranthaman, a distinguished research staff member and leader of the Materials Chemistry group of ORNL's Chemical Sciences Division, was cited for "pioneering contributions to materials chemistry, including research, development, and commercialization of materials for superconductors, solar cells, and energy storage; and for exceptional service to the materials community." Paranthaman also serves on the faculty for the University of Tennessee's Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education. His current research focuses on the critical materials research related to additive manufacturing of permanent magnets and lithium separation from geothermal brine, electrode materials for battery applications, polymer composite films and synthesis of neutron scintillator materials for the Spallation Neutron Source Second Target Station. An author or co-author of more than 400 publications with a google scholar h-index of 58, 35 issued US patents, and six R&D 100 awards; Paranthaman is also a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, ASM International, the American Ceramic Society and the Institute of Physics, London, UK. He received his doctorate in solid-state chemistry from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, in 1988. Kalinin and Paranthaman will be honored at the professional society's annual meeting in April. The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences and the Spallation Neutron Source are DOE Office of Science User Facilities. UT-Battelle manages ORNL for the DOE's Office of Science. The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit http://science. . NOTE TO EDITORS: You may read other press releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory or learn more about the lab at http://www. . Additional information about ORNL is available at the sites below:


News Article | February 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A weapon, whether a body part such as hands, fists and feet or an external instrument like a gun, often accompanies intimate-partner violence. Susan B. Sorenson of the University of Pennsylvania wanted to better understand just how frequently each type generally, and guns specifically, appeared in these cases. In collaboration with the Philadelphia Police Department, she studied more than 35,000 domestic-violence incidents from 2013. She found that assailants used hands, fists or feet to attack in about 6,500 of them, and in nearly 1,900 used external weapons such as knives, scissors or baseball bats. About one-third of events with external weapons involved a gun, and 80 percent of such incidents were male-on-female. Knowing this breakdown provides an important comparison, said Sorenson, a professor of social policy in Penn's School of Social Policy & Practice and director of The Evelyn Jacobs Ortner Center on Family Violence. "We need to know how guns are used compared to other weapons and how all weapons are used against women," Sorenson said. This research is part of her broader effort to study intimate-partner violence from many different angles. "A lot of the policies that are laid out about guns and domestic violence focus on preventing homicides, which is really important," she said. "But there has been less attention on what it means for the women who are alive and not just as a risk factor for their death." To that end, Sorenson began working with the Philadelphia police, which gave her access to an entire year of department-mandated paperwork on 911 calls related to domestic violence, regardless of whether an arrest took place. That form included information about what the responding officer saw and did at the scene, as well as a body map to indicate injuries and a place for what Sorenson described as the "narrative," where officers write in their own words what the victim described. In addition to revealing what percentage of the time a gun became part of a domestic incident, the data showed that in most such events, males attacked females and that gun use in domestic disputes actually equated to fewer injuries. Sorenson posited that's true because, when a gun enters a situation, women are more likely to back down than fight back. Study findings show that when an assailant uses a gun rather than another kind of weapon, a woman is less likely to incur injury but substantially more likely to be frightened. "When faced with another form of weapon, she might try and defend herself, whereas when there's a gun, the weapon is, by definition, lethal," she said. This underscores the idea of coercive control, in which an abuser doesn't necessarily want to physically hurt a victim but rather cement the power dynamic between the two by brandishing a gun, thus increasing the intimidation factor. "They get what they want without causing physical harm," Sorenson said. Though such research provides important context, it's likely only part of the larger picture about firearms in domestic violence. The National Crime Victimization Survey, conducted since 1973 by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, showed that from 2002 to 2011 guns appeared 5 percent of the time at such incidents. That analysis includes any event with a firearm, not just those the police learn about, meaning there's likely even more gun use than is reported. Understanding this can better prepare those who encounter victims immediately following an incident. "Even when the person is not presenting in the emergency department with a gunshot wound or having been pistol-whipped, it's important for health-care professionals to ask about guns," Sorenson said. "If a gun is used and there is increased fear, the person is less likely to leave the relationship." The same goes for law enforcement, she said. "Police officers are first responders. They're going to see these incidents when the people want intervention and are calling and asking for help. Police can be really good partners in preventing a situation from escalating." Sorenson is presenting this research, which she published in the Journal of Women's Health, at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.


Yaffe M.B.,American Association for the Advancement of Science | Yaffe M.B.,Cambridge Broad Institute
Science Signaling | Year: 2013

The massive resources devoted to genome sequencing of human tumors have produced important data sets for the cancer biology community. Paradoxically, however, these studies have revealed very little new biology. Despite this, additional resources in the United States are slated to continue such work and to expand similar efforts in genome sequencing to mouse tumors. It may be that scientists are "addicted" to the large amounts of data that can be relatively easily obtained, even though these data seem unlikely, on their own, to unveil new cancer treatment options or result in the ultimate goal of a cancer cure. Rather than using more tumor genetic sequences, a better strategy for identifying new treatment options may be to develop methods for analyzing the signaling networks that underlie cancer development, progression, and therapeutic resistance at both a personal and systems-wide level. © 2013 American Association for the Advancement of Science.


News Article | February 18, 2017
Site: www.sciencenewsdaily.org

The rise of fake news has dominated the world of politics since the last US election cycle. But fake news is not at all new in the world of science, notes University of Wisconsin-Madison Life Sciences Communication Professor Dominique Brossard. Addressing the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Brossard discussed the fake news phenomenon in the context of science and online social networks like Facebook and Twitter. The rise of fake news has dominated the world of politics since the last U.S. election cycle. But fake news is not at all new in the world of science, notes University of Wisconsin-Madison Life ... Communications expert explains how science should respond to fake news, Sat 18 Feb 17 from Science Blog Communications expert explains how science should respond to fake news, Sat 18 Feb 17 from Eurekalert


Wong W.,American Association for the Advancement of Science
Science Signaling | Year: 2011

Cells interpret environmental cues to extend processes in the appropriate direction, descend upon sources of inflammation or necrosis, or determine the best path to the correct position in a developing organism. This Focus Issue of Science Signaling highlights the signaling pathways and mechanisms that enable cells to sense external signals and direct their movement accordingly. © 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science. All Rights Reserved.


Wong W.,American Association for the Advancement of Science
Science Signaling | Year: 2012

The process by which cells orient their movement according to external gradients plays important roles in physiological and pathological processes. This Focus Issue of Science Signaling highlights the interplay between molecules, signaling pathways, and mechanisms that enable directional movement.


VanHook A.M.,American Association for the Advancement of Science
Science Signaling | Year: 2011

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays varied and critical roles in animal development, homeostasis, and disease. The core components of the canonical pathway and many key modulators of signaling have been identified, as have mechanisms by which the quantity and quality of signaling through the pathway are modulated. New research reveals details about generation and interpretation of Hh gradients, noncanonical Hh signaling, and fine-tuning the biological response to Hh signaling, particularly in the context of human diseases such as cancer.


Wong W.,American Association for the Advancement of science
Science Signaling | Year: 2012

During the month of May, Science Signaling will publish research and commentary that use or describe the application of structural approaches to reveal the mechanisms underlying signaling molecules and events, to uncover how signaling molecules perform their biological functions or contribute to disease, and to highlight potentially fruitful avenues for drug design.


Ferrarelli L.K.,American Association for the Advancement of Science
Science Signaling | Year: 2013

Receptor tyrosine kinases and the signaling networks that they control contribute to cancer and resistance to therapies. Therefore, understanding these networks, how they vary within and among tumors and how they adapt to enable cancer cells to circumvent treatment, should lead to more effective therapeutic strategies in treating the diverse disease that is cancer. As Science Signaling highlights in this week's issue, systems biology and computational biology are shining light on these complex networks and enabling integration of diverse information about genetics, proteomics, and network activity to effectively predict therapeutic response and identify key components to target for intervention.


Ferrarelli L.K.,American Association for the Advancement of Science
Science Signaling | Year: 2014

Treating cancer involves not only stemming the growth of the primary tumor but also preventing its progression to metastatic disease. Advances in our understanding of the molecular pathways that transform healthy cells and maintain the proliferative advantage of tumor cells have enabled the development of targeted therapeutics, but preventing drug resistance and the switch to metastatic disease remains challenging. As this week's issue of Science Signaling highlights, dissection of the pathways that regulate infl ammation in the tumor microenvironment and insight into the molecular changes that occur in cells in response to therapy may improve clinical strategies, particularly for aggressive breast and skin cancers.

Loading American Association for the Advancement of Science collaborators
Loading American Association for the Advancement of Science collaborators