Rima J.,Lebanese University |
Abourida M.,Lebanese University |
Yalcintas M.,Amel Technologies Inc. |
Kaya A.,Amel Technologies Inc.
Journal of Environmental Engineering | Year: 2010
Modified by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) salts and unmodified bagasse fibers were tested for the removal of total dissolved solids (TDSs) from cooling tower water. Parameters such as hydrogen ion concentration (pH), particle size of bagasse fibers, and the concentrations of adsorbent and adsorbate were studied to optimize the conditions to be applied on a commercial scale for the decontamination of effluents of cooling tower water. The optimum pH for TDS removal was between 6 and 6.5. The efficiency of TDS removal increased when the size of fiber particles decreased (100 μm) and when the concentration of EDTA salt increased to reach 78 mg/g of modified bagasse fibers. The adsorption parameters were determined using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The preferential mechanisms for the retention of TDSs are a complexation process between the TDSs and chemical functions present on the surface of fibers, and the chelation process with the EDTA attached to the fibers. The results obtained could be valuable for application to cooling tower water treatment and for the softening of hard drinking water. © 2010 ASCE.
Kaya A.,Amel Technologies Inc. |
Yalcintas M.,Amel Technologies Inc.
Energy | Year: 2010
This study begins with a review of energy consumption by end-use sector in Hawaii. Then, the energy generated from renewable energy sources is analyzed between 1991 and 2006. The results show that while geothermal is a considerable source of renewable energy on the Island of Hawaii (also known as Big Island), fossil fuel is the main energy source in the State of Hawaii. The energy intensity index for the State of Hawaii is then calculated by dividing energy consumption per capita by the income per capita. The calculated energy intensity index reveals that energy consumption is directly controlled by per capita income. The results also indicate that the energy intensity index increases over time despite positive developments in energy efficient technologies. In the second part of the paper, the effect of the tourism industry on energy usage in the State of Hawaii is analyzed. The results show that tourism volume, measured in terms of tourist arrival numbers, does not change the energy consumption directly. However, a change in tourism volume does affect per capita income within a few months to a year. In the last part of the study, the energy efficiency index of Hawaii is compared with consumption averages for the US, California and the most energy efficient country in Europe, Denmark. The comparison shows that Hawaii lags behind California and Denmark in terms of energy efficiency. The comparison also shows that an increase in energy efficiency corresponds to an increase in per capita income across the board, which is in agreement with a recent report published by the American Physical Society. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.