Louchnikov V.N.,AMC Consultants Pty Ltd |
Sandy M.P.,AMC Consultants Pty Ltd |
Eremenko V.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Eurasian Mining | Year: 2014
Surface support is a key component of most ground support systems which are applied as a means of reducing the risk of rock-fall occurrence and maintaining serviceability of mine development. Surface support has two primary functions: a) distributing the applied load throughout the system by providing connection between rock bolts and b) retaining smaller rocks that unravel between rock bolts. Confinement is also provided to the rock mass, which may increase its capacity to resist further degradation or loosening. Surface support has been routinely installed in most underground mines around the world for many years, yet the operators are still not always certain which type is best suited for deformable ground conditions. A number of factors need to be taken into consideration prior to selecting the type of surface support liner, such as its capacity, availability, practicality of installation, manual handling and loading conditions (static or dynamic) to ensure the system's optimal performance in terms of safety and costs. This paper presents an overview of the surface support types currently used in underground mines in Australia. Shotcrete, weld mesh, high-tensile chainlink mesh, reinforced weld mesh and high energy absorption mesh are discussed. A detailed description of each system is provided in terms of capacity, energy absorption, installation cycle and costs. The cost of each system has been normalised to the units of energy absorbed. The information presented in this paper can be used by underground operators as a reference guide when deciding on suitable surface support type for deformable ground conditions. © Louchnikov V. N., Eremenko V. A., Sandy M. P., 2014.
Chesher R.,AMC Consultants Pty Ltd |
Gleeson E.,AMC Consultants Pty Ltd |
Allen P.,AMC Consultants Pty Ltd |
Boakye D.,AMC Consultants Pty Ltd
AusIMM Bulletin | Year: 2015
Not only do epithermal gold deposits provide many challenges in estimating mineral resources, the complexities of these deposits also provide technical challenges in assessing appropriate mining and processing strategies, as well as social and environmental planning and management. The characteristics of epithermal gold deposits include being highly variable with respect to geometry and gold grade distribution, the presence of other economic contributors, mineralogy, texture, rock strength, weathering and alteration overprint. These characteristics influence the economic value of mining projects in an interlinked manner. Consequently, successful exploitation of epithermal deposits requires a holistic approach, coupled with the effective integration of geological data to meet all aspects of mine development decision-making. This paper presents examples of the key technical challenges encountered in estimating and mining epithermal deposits. It also highlights why these issues need to be addressed from the viewpoint of geology, sampling, resource estimation, mine planning, mineral processing and social and environmental planning for the true value of the mining project to be realised.