San Diego, CA, United States
San Diego, CA, United States

Time filter

Source Type

Jackson D.,Agensys Inc. | Atkinson J.,Agensys Inc. | Guevara C.I.,Agensys Inc. | Zhang C.,Agensys Inc. | And 19 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are monoclonal antibodies designed to deliver a cytotoxic drug selectively to antigen expressing cells. Several components of an ADC including the selection of the antibody, the linker, the cytotoxic drug payload and the site of attachment used to attach the drug to the antibody are critical to the activity and development of the ADC. The cytotoxic drugs or payloads used to make ADCs are typically conjugated to the antibody through cysteine or lysine residues. This results in ADCs that have a heterogeneous number of drugs per antibody. The number of drugs per antibody commonly referred to as the drug to antibody ratio (DAR), can vary between 0 and 8 drugs for a IgG1 antibody. Antibodies with 0 drugs are ineffective and compete with the ADC for binding to the antigen expressing cells. Antibodies with 8 drugs per antibody have reduced in vivo stability, which may contribute to non target related toxicities. In these studies we incorporated a non-natural amino acid, para acetyl phenylalanine, at two unique sites within an antibody against Her2/neu. We covalently attached a cytotoxic drug to these sites to form an ADC which contains two drugs per antibody. We report the results from the first direct preclinical comparison of a site specific non-natural amino acid anti-Her2 ADC and a cysteine conjugated anti-Her2 ADC. We report that the site specific non-natural amino acid anti-Her2 ADCs have superior in vitro serum stability and preclinical toxicology profile in rats as compared to the cysteine conjugated anti-Her2 ADCs. We also demonstrate that the site specific non-natural amino acid anti-Her2 ADCs maintain their in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy against Her2 expressing human tumor cell lines. Our data suggests that site specific non-natural amino acid ADCs may have a superior therapeutic window than cysteine conjugated ADCs. © 2014 Jackson et al.


PubMed | Ambrx Incorporated
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2011

The ribosomal incorporation of nonnative amino acids into polypeptides in living cells provides the opportunity to endow therapeutic proteins with unique pharmacological properties. We report here the first clinical study of a biosynthetic protein produced using an expanded genetic code. Incorporation of p-acetylphenylalanine (pAcF) at distinct locations in human growth hormone (hGH) allowed site-specific conjugation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to produce homogeneous hGH variants. A mono-PEGylated mutant hGH modified at residue 35 demonstrated favorable pharmacodynamic properties in GH-deficient rats. Clinical studies in GH-deficient adults demonstrated efficacy and safety comparable to native human growth hormone therapy but with increased potency and reduced injection frequency. This example illustrates the utility of nonnative amino acids to optimize protein therapeutics in an analogous fashion to the use of medicinal chemistry to optimize conventional natural products, low molecular weight drugs, and peptides.

Loading Ambrx Incorporated collaborators
Loading Ambrx Incorporated collaborators