Sargans, Switzerland
Sargans, Switzerland

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Wannenmacher H.,Amberg Engineering AG | Grunenfelder F.,KobelPartner AG | Amann F.,ETH Zurich | Button E.A.,ETH Zurich
Rock Mechanics in Civil and Environmental Engineering - Proceedings of the European Rock Mechanics Symposium, EUROCK 2010 | Year: 2010

In populated alpine regions infrastructure projects often compete with nature and the general public for open space or other natural resources. The project Waferfab located near Sargans, Switzerland is a ground-breaking infrastructure project utilizing underground space as a manufacturing facility for sensitive industrial processes requiring strict vibration and temperature controls. The "Waferfab" is a multiple structure complex with the main offices situated on the surface connected to two main caverns, which serve as the production and storage facilities, by two access galleries with a length of about 100 m. Due to safety reason a shallow placement of the cavern was envisioned. During the cavern construction, steep open joints with apertures of more than 30 to 100 cm were associated with the main fracture set, while bedding parallel discontinuities with apertures up to 20 cm were locally encountered. The encountered ground characteristics, probably governed by the local tectonic and morphological conditions, caused large gravitational overbreaks especially in the front of the production cavern. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group.


Henzinger M.R.,University of Graz | Radoncic N.,Amberg Engineering AG | Moritz B.A.,OBB Infrastruktur AGStreckenmanagement und Anlagenentwicklung | Schubert W.,University of Graz
Geomechanik und Tunnelbau | Year: 2016

With mechanized shield tunnelling the quality of the backfill is of significant importance for the stability of the lining. The used material affects the interaction between support and rock mass. Therefore, the choice of a proper backfilling material is of great importance for the system behaviour. Scaled model tests have been carried out investigating the relocation behaviour of pea gravel within the annular gap. The tests have shown that especially with Double shielded TBMs a distinct relocation mechanism is triggered by the regripping process. This leads to an unfavourable bedding situation immediately behind the TBM shield. Within a numerical study the influence of an incomplete bedding situation on the section forces within the lining segments has been carried out. The simulations have shown that crack propagation is more likely in unfavourable bedding situations. Nevertheless, numerical simulations have proven that cracks within the segments denote a higher utilization level but do not directly imply an acute danger to the load-bearing capacity. As observed in reality, the state of incomplete bedding represents the relevant load case. A design improvement has been introduced overcoming the temporary state of a partially bedded segmental lining. Furthermore, this approach prevents a large-scale relocation process of pea gravel within the annular gap. Bei Schildvortrieben hat die Qualität der Ringspaltverfüllung einen wesentlichen Einfluss auf die Qualität des Tübbingausbaus. Das verwendete Bettungsmaterial beeinflusst die Interaktion Gebirge-Tübbingausbau. Deshalb ist die Wahl eines geeigneten Materials für die Ringraumverfüllung von hoher Bedeutung für das Systemverhalten. Zur Untersuchung des Umlagerungsverhaltens von Perlkies innerhalb des Ringspalts wurden Laborversuche durchgeführt. Die Versuche zeigten, dass vor allem bei Doppelschildmaschinen eine ausgeprägte Tendenz zur Umlagerung des Perlkieses in Längsrichtung während des Umsetzvorgangs gegeben ist. In Folge dessen sind die Tübbingringe unmittelbar hinter dem Schildschwanz nur teilgebettet. Mittels numerischer Simulationen wurde der Einfluss der unvollständigen Bettung auf die Schnittkräfte der Tübbingsegmente untersucht. Die Simulationen haben gezeigt, dass die Rissentwicklung vor allem bei ungünstigen Bettungsszenarien bevorzugt auftritt. Weiters wurde festgestellt, dass Betonrisse lediglich auf einen erhöhten Ausnutzungsgrad innerhalb der Stahlbetonfertigteile, jedoch nicht auf eine Gefährdung der Ausbautragfähigkeit hinweisen. Wie in der Realität beobachtet, repräsentiert der Zustand der unvollständigen Bettung den maßgebenden Lastfall. Abschließend wird eine Maßnahme vorgestellt, die die temporäre Bettung gezielt verbessern soll. Zudem verhindert diese eine großräumige Umlagerung von Perlkies innerhalb des Ringspalts. © 2016 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin


Stadelmann R.,Amberg Engineering AG | Rehbock-Sander M.,Amberg Engineering AG
Geotechnik | Year: 2010

The Gotthard Base Tunnel is a 57 km long railway tunnel through the Swiss Alps. During construction of the multifunction station at the construction section Faido an until than unknown fault zone system was encountered. Additionally rock bursts have occurred since March 2004 and the Swiss Seismological Service recorded an accumulation of seismic activity in the area of the multifunction station Faido. This paper deals with the coping of the challenges of the construction works and the taken measures to ensure the workers safety during construction works. The results from seismic measuring and numerical computations are shown. The risks of a micro tremor for the tunnel under operation are estimated.


Admiraal H.,Enprodes Management Consultancy BV | Cornaro A.,Amberg Engineering AG
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology | Year: 2015

Cities worldwide tend to overlook an invaluable asset that lies beneath their surfaces. Most cities and urban regions are unaware of the benefits underground space use has to offer, both for climate inflicted and spatial constraints: In many cities, infrastructure development is being outpaced by population growth. Climate change effects are requiring radical new approaches in terms of coping with for example excessive rainfall. The available space at the surface is rapidly being used up and the biggest danger is that built-up spaces are taking over the public green spaces of cities thereby threatening livability and quality of life. Urban underground space forms a societal asset, which is often unappreciated and underestimated in terms of the role it can play within dynamic city environments and associated challenges.This paper will explore the ways in which urban underground space can be optimally integrated into the dynamic urban context. It also explores the often contradictory functions that make underground space use complicated from a planner's perspective. The first-come-first-served strategy of underground space use has left many cities wondering how they are going to cope with the self-inflicted "chaos" under the surface. The often mono-functional uses of the underground lead to sub-optimal space use. Most cities and urban regions are unaware of the benefits underground space use has to offer. In guiding the future use of urban underground space, a comprehensive policy framework guiding its development is lacking on which decisions can be based. This often leads to the non-sustainable use of this important asset. It will be argued that both vision and planning are needed to be able to make the best use of this underrated underground real estate.The authors will also debate that just understanding the potential of underground space is not enough. Realising its actual potential and facilitating its development will require a spatial dialogue between many stakeholders, including planners, engineers, developers and public decision makers. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


An approx. 2.2 km long section of the U5 in the city centre of Berlin is currently under construction to close the gap between the existing underground structures at the Berliner Rotes Rathaus and Brandenburger Tor stations. Construction started early 2012 and the connection between Alexanderplatz and Brandenburger Tor is planned to open in 2019. The alignment starts from the newly built Rotes Rathaus Metro station, passing under the River Spree, the planned new Berliner Schloss and the Spree channel, and then follows the street Unter den Linden before arriving at the Brandenburger Tor. Three new stations have to be constructed at Rotes Rathaus, Museumsinsel and Unter den Linden, with the centrepiece being the Museumsinsel station where ground freezing techniques are being used. © 2013 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.


Sala A.,Amberg Engineering AG | Wick R.,Gahler und Partner AG
Geomechanik und Tunnelbau | Year: 2016

The 57 km long Gotthard Base Tunnel from Erstfeld to Bodio is not only the longest but with an overburden of about 2, 300 m also the deepest rail tunnel in the world. The tunnel system consists of two parallel single-track tunnels with the axes 40 m apart (in fault zones up to 70 m), connected every 312.5 m by a total of 178 cross passages. The two multi-function stations at the approximate third points in Sedrun and Faido have an emergency station for each running tunnel and two track crossovers. The normal profile is based on the structure gauge EBV 4 and the clearance for overhead EBV S3 and has minimum free passage area Fair of 41 m2. The tunnel has a ballastless track and the drainage system is separated. The shoulders at the side serve as walkway and escape route and house the numerous cable ducts for the operation of the tunnel. Due to the stringent water tightness requirements, the tunnel has a two-pass lining along the entire length, normally with umbrella waterproofing. Depending to the geology, the inner vault is between 25 and 35 cm thick, and in squeezing zones in Sedrun up to 70 cm. Construction was undertaken simultaneously from the two portals at Erstfeld and Bodio as well as through two intermediate starting points in Amsteg and Faido (with access tunnels 2.1 km and 2.6 km long respectively) and down two vertical shafts in Sedrun (T = 800 m). The main drives were bored by TBMs (cutterhead diameter 8.8 to 9.55 m) except for the Sedrun section; altogether about 75 % of the tunnel length was bored mechanically. © 2016 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.


Rothlisberger B.,Amberg Engineering AG | Sporri D.,Implenia Schweiz AG Tunnelling | Rehbock M.,Amberg Engineering AG
Geomechanik und Tunnelbau | Year: 2016

The multi-function station (MFS) Faido, with track crossovers located symmetrically around the transverse cavern, is accessed through a 2.7 km long access tunnel. The geology encountered in the transverse cavern and the first metres of boring the running tunnels was very different from the forecast. Technical, economic and scheduling considerations demanded the moving of the four crossovers by 600 m to the south. In the drill and blast excavation of the single-track tunnel to the north, deformations of up to 1.3 m occurred in the radius. In addition to the dangers of "squeezing rock" and "rock fall", unforecast and serious rock burst also occurred in the east and west running tunnels, which could not have been foreseen. Yielding temporary support measures had to be carried out along a length of 500 m and sometimes massively strengthened. Intensive probing in the form of hammer and core drilling and seismic methods (TSP - Tunnel Seismic Prediction) was carried out during the tunnel drives. The drives were also monitored with intensive rock mechanical measurements. The results of probing, the rock mechanical measurements and the interpretations of the encountered geology all confirmed that the decision was correct to move the MFS. © 2016 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.


The investigation measures carried out for the construction of the Gotthard Base Tunnel provide a demonstrative example for dealing with geological risk through appropriate investigation at each state of the project. Due to the length and deep overburden, it was impossible to completely investigate the entire length of the tunnel in advance. The concept in the southern sections intended the performance of probing ahead of the machine only in particularly critical locations, with the tunnelling and lining concept for the individual sections being designed to cope with possible hazard scenarios for the section and the provision of more intensive probing ahead of the continued drive in order to specify the necessary constructional measures. In addition, massive formation water ingress was to be expected in certain sections, which could reach a high quantity and high pressures (up to 200 bars). The advance probing concept included in the contract for the almost 30 km long southern TBM drives of the Gotthard Base Tunnel with hammer drilling, seismic investigation and core drilling is described and the experience gained during the progress of the tunnel and the necessary adaptations are summarised. Suggestions are then derived for future projects. © 2014 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.


Ekici Z.,IGT consulting engineers | Ruegg C.,Amberg Engineering AG | Wilfinger N.,viglconsult ZT | Wagner O.K.,OBB Infrastruktur AG | Weigl J.,iC consulenten ZT GesmbH
Geomechanik und Tunnelbau | Year: 2011

The approved alignment of the "New Semmering Base Tunnel" was divided into sections according to the three aspects risk, geotechnics and construction operations, in which either only sequential tunnelling or both methods, sequential or continuous mechanised, could be used. © 2011 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co.


Jesel T.,Amberg Engineering AG | Amberg F.,Amberg Engineering AG | Rohrer T.,AlpTransit Gotthard AG
Geomechanik und Tunnelbau | Year: 2016

In the course of designing the Gotthard Base Tunnel, extensive questions were considered about the tunnelling conditions to be expected and the resulting requirements for the TBM. Naturally this mainly concentrated on the achievable advance rates and the associated costs. The tunnelling works have now been completed and the essential assumptions and decisions from the design phase could be confirmed. Experience does however also show that the behaviour of the rock mass could not always be correctly predicted in its entireness and a corresponding flexibility in the use of support measures is unavoidable, which is only possible with suitable tunnelling equipment and machinery. The present article collects the essential data and facts from the TBM drives and described the areas where significant deviations arose. Particular attention is paid to the following subjects and the corresponding effects: wear to the cutterhead, heavy water ingress, rockburst, reciprocal influencing of the two tunnel drives under poor geological conditions and the collapse in the Tenelin Zone. The stated matters are described with a comparison against the assumptions made in the design phase and a complemented with few of the lessons learnt. Im Zuge der Planung des Gotthard Basistunnels wurden umfangreiche Überlegungen angestellt, über die zu erwartenden Vortriebsverhältnisse und die sich daraus ergebenden Anforderungen an die TBM. Im Fokus standen dabei naturgemäß vor allem auch die erreichbaren Vortriebsleistungen und die damit verbundenen Kosten. Die Vortriebsarbeiten sind abgeschlossen, und die wesentlichen Annahmen und Entscheide aus der Planungsphase konnten bestätigt werden. Die Erfahrung zeigt aber auch, dass das Verhalten des Gebirges nicht immer vollumfänglich zutreffend vorausgesagt werden konnte und eine entsprechende Flexibilität beim Einsatz der Sicherungsmittel unumgänglich ist, was nur mit einer dafür geeigneten Vortriebsinstallation möglich ist. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt die wesentlichen Daten und Fakten aus dem TBM- Vortrieb zusammen und zeigt auf, in welchen Bereichen sich deutliche Unterschiede ergeben haben. Ein besonderes Augenmerk wird auf folgende Themen und die entsprechenden Auswirkungen gelegt: Verschleiß am Bohrkopf, hoher Wasseranfall, Bergschlag, gegenseitige Beeinflussung der beiden Tunnelvortriebe bei schlechten geologischen Verhältnissen und Niederbruch in der Tenelin-Zone. Die aufgeführten Punkte werden mit einem Vergleich der Annahmen aus der Projektierung und den effektiv angetroffenen Verhältnissen beleuchtet sowie mit einigen Hinweisen zu den Lessons learned abgerundet. © 2016 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin

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