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Agrawal A.,University of Michigan | Nepstad D.,Amazon Environmental Research Institute IPAM | Chhatre A.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Annual Review of Environment and Resources | Year: 2011

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) policies, projects, and interventions are among the most prominent of recent attempts to mitigate climate change. Because REDD+ projects focus on forests, they simultaneously affect socioeconomic and ecological outcomes at local, subnational, national, regional, and global levels. This review assesses the promise of REDD+ for the continued ability of forests to provide multiple benefits to human societies at multiple scales. We survey REDD+ efforts at different levels, examining them through an actor-oriented approach. The article highlights the criticality of collaborative action to enhance desired outcomes of REDD+ efforts. In summarizing major REDD+ future trends, the paper emphasizes the need to learn from past forestry, agricultural, biodiversity, and development policies, and for adaptive policy making. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Bustamante M.M.C.,University of Brasilia | Roitman I.,University of Brasilia | Aide T.M.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Alencar A.,Amazon Environmental Research Institute IPAM | And 23 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2016

Tropical forests harbor a significant portion of global biodiversity and are a critical component of the climate system. Reducing deforestation and forest degradation contributes to global climate-change mitigation efforts, yet emissions and removals from forest dynamics are still poorly quantified. We reviewed the main challenges to estimate changes in carbon stocks and biodiversity due to degradation and recovery of tropical forests, focusing on three main areas: (1) the combination of field surveys and remote sensing; (2) evaluation of biodiversity and carbon values under a unified strategy; and (3) research efforts needed to understand and quantify forest degradation and recovery. The improvement of models and estimates of changes of forest carbon can foster process-oriented monitoring of forest dynamics, including different variables and using spatially explicit algorithms that account for regional and local differences, such as variation in climate, soil, nutrient content, topography, biodiversity, disturbance history, recovery pathways, and socioeconomic factors. Generating the data for these models requires affordable large-scale remote-sensing tools associated with a robust network of field plots that can generate spatially explicit information on a range of variables through time. By combining ecosystem models, multiscale remote sensing, and networks of field plots, we will be able to evaluate forest degradation and recovery and their interactions with biodiversity and carbon cycling. Improving monitoring strategies will allow a better understanding of the role of forest dynamics in climate-change mitigation, adaptation, and carbon cycle feedbacks, thereby reducing uncertainties in models of the key processes in the carbon cycle, including their impacts on biodiversity, which are fundamental to support forest governance policies, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Rocha W.,Amazon Environmental Research Institute IPAM | Rocha W.,Mato Grosso State University | Metcalfe D.B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Doughty C.E.,University of Oxford | And 7 more authors.
Plant Ecology and Diversity | Year: 2014

Background: The impact of fire on carbon cycling in tropical forests is potentially large, but remains poorly quantified, particularly in the locality of the transition forests that mark the boundaries between humid forests and savannas. Aims: To present the first comprehensive description of the impact of repeated low intensity, understorey fire on carbon cycling in a semi-deciduous, seasonally dry tropical forest on infertile soil in south-eastern Amazonia. Methods: We compared an annually burnt forest plot with a control plot over a three-year period (2009-2011). For each plot we quantified the components of net primary productivity (NPP), autotrophic (R a) and heterotrophic respiration (R h), and estimated total plant carbon expenditure (PCE, the sum of NPP and R a) and carbon-use efficiency (CUE, the quotient of NPP/PCE). Results: Total NPP and R a were 15 and 4% lower on the burnt plot than on the control, respectively. Both plots were characterised by a slightly higher CUE of 0.36-0.39, compared to evergreen lowland Amazon forests. Conclusions: These measurements provide the first evidence of a distinctive pattern of carbon cycling within this transitional forest. Overall, regular understorey fire is shown to have little impact on ecosystem-level carbon fluxes. © 2014 Copyright 2013 Botanical Society of Scotland and Taylor & Francis. Source

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