Amar Singh College

Srinagar, India

Amar Singh College

Srinagar, India
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Sheikh M.S.,Aligarh Muslim University | Khanam A.J.,Aligarh Muslim University | Shafi N.,Amar Singh College | Amin A.,University Of Kashmir | Rub M.A.,King Abdulaziz University
Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology | Year: 2017

With the aim of studying the effect of anionic hydrotrope sodium salicylate and nonionic hydrotrope resorcinol on the micellization behaviors of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as well as sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), experiments were carried out in aqueous medium at different temperatures using conductivity measurements. Hydrotrope addition leads to decrease in values of critical micelle concentration (cmc). The values of cmc of mixtures were obtained to be lower than the cmc value of ideal and pure component cmc values, which indicate negative deviation with synergistic interaction as confirmed by the negative interaction parameters (βm) values in mixed systems. In addition, the evaluated values of excess free energy of mixing ((Formula presented.)) as well as free energy of micellization (ΔmicG○) are achieved to be negative showing stability of mixed systems. © 2017 Taylor & Francis

Wani H.,Amar Singh College | Dar S.A.,University Of Kashmir | Mondal M.E.A.,Aligarh Muslim University
Journal of Geology | Year: 2017

Despite documentation of fossil armored mud balls in the geological record, no fossil unarmored mud balls have been previously reported. Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of fossil unarmored mud balls at two locations from 2.6 Ma lacustrine sediments in the Kashmir basin, India. The two locations are stratigraphically equivalent. At location A, brown mud balls of various shapes and sizes occur with large rounded and angular blocks of brown and gray mud in a random manner, indicating that they were formed quickly by short transport and by the slumping of lake beach cliff, triggered by an earthquake. This conclusion is supported by the presence of slump folds within this mud ball unit. The external morphology and internal structure of these mud balls suggest their growth by rolling over the muddy lake beach in a unidirectional transport by strong tidal waves. The mud balls at location B are gray in color and smaller in size than those at location A. Location B mud balls show high sphericity and roundness, thus seeming to indicate that they were transported over longer distances in a distal fan environment. However, the occurrence of these gray mud balls within a gray mud bed (same mud type) does not favor longer transport. Instead, they were formed by to-and-fro motion of gentle waves near the muddy beach. Further, the mud balls at location B show desiccation cracks, indicating that they were left stranded along the lakeshore after their formation. Location B sediments show large-scale slump folds involving the gray mud ball–containing clay unit overlying the yellow clay and sand beds, which indicates that the mud balls were formed before this deformation and thus before the mud balls of location A. © 2017 by The University of Chicago.

We carried out petrographic analyses of the sandstones and geochemical analyses of the shales from the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Chhattisgarh and Indravati Basins to determine their tectonic setting, provenance, and paleoredox conditions. Petrographic study shows that the sandstone samples have high amounts of quartz but are depleted in feldspar and lithic fragments. The shales have been classified into the calcareous and noncalcareous shales. The noncalcareous shales have higher concentrations of most of the major elements and trace elements, including the rare earth elements (REEs), in comparison to the calcareous shales. However, this difference in elemental concentrations between the calcareous and noncalcareous shales proved to be significant only for SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, MnO, CaO, K2O, loss on ignition, Rb, Sr, Nb, Ce, Pr, Sm, Gd, Hf, and Ta using the Student's t-test at better than 95% confidence level. Upper continental crust (UCC)-normalized elemental ratios of the calcareous and noncalcareous shales suggest evolved sources similar to UCC. The sandstone petrology and Ni versus Cr diagram, chondrite-normalized REE patterns, and negative Eu/Eu* values of the calcareous and noncalcareous shale samples reveal that the sediments have been derived from felsic rocks (granites and gneisses) of the Bastar craton. The SiO2 versus K2O/Na2O and SiO2/Al2O3 versus K2O/Na2O tectonic-setting discrimination diagrams of the shales and the petrology of the sandstones indicate a passive-margin tectonic setting for Chhattisgarh and Indravati Basins. Geochemical parameters such as Ce/Ce* and Mn* suggest that the calcareous shales were deposited in a suboxic environment, compared to the oxic environment of the noncalcareous shales. © 2011 Geological Society of America.

The Meso-Neoproterozoic shales of the Bastar craton, Central Indian Shield have been analyzed geochemically to study their geochemical characteristics and to evaluate paleoweathering, provenance, tectonic setting and paleoredox conditions. The shale samples have been classified into the calcareous and the non-calcareous shales on the basis of presence of calcite and CaO concentrations. In comparison to the calcareous shales, the non-calcareous shales have higher concentrations of most major elements and trace elements including rare earth elements (REEs). The Upper Continental Crust (UCC) normalized elemental ratios of the calcareous and the non-calcareous shales suggest evolved sources similar to the UCC (Upper Continental Crust). The Th/Co versus La/Sc and La-Th-Sc diagrams, chondrite normalized REE patterns and negative Eu/Eu* values of the calcareous and non-calcareous shale samples further reveal that the sediments have been derived from a felsic source and the source rocks have been identified to be the granites and the gneisses of the Bastar craton. The SiO2 versus K2O/Na2O and the SiO2/Al2O3 versus K2O/Na2O tectonic setting discrimination diagrams indicate sediments were deposited in a passive margin tectonic setting. The CIA (Chemical Index of Alteration), PIA (Plagioclase Index of Alteration), Th/U and K/Rb ratios and the K2O-Fe2O3-Al2O3 relations of both the calcareous and the non-calcareous shales indicate that source area was affected by moderate to intense weathering history. The geochemical parameters like Ce/Ce* and Mn* suggest that the calcareous shales were deposited in suboxic environment compared to the non-calcareous shales. © 2011 The Association of Korean Geoscience Societies and Springer.

Mondal M.E.A.,Aligarh Muslim University | Wani H.,Amar Singh College | Mondal B.,Aligarh Muslim University
Tectonophysics | Year: 2012

The Ganga basin in the Himalayan foreland is a part of the world's largest area of modern alluvial sedimentation. Flood plain sediments of the Hindon River of the Gangetic plain have been analyzed for sediment texture, major and trace elements including rare earth elements (REEs). The results have been used to characterize the source rock composition and to understand the intensity of chemical weathering, tectonics and their interplay in the Hindon flood plain. The sediments of the Hindon flood plain dominantly consist of sand sized particles with little silt and clay. The geochemistry of the Hindon sediments has been compared to the Siwalik mudstone of the Siwalik Group (Siwaliks). The Siwalik sedimentary rocks like sandstones, mudstones and conglomerates are the known source rocks for the Hindon flood plain sediments. Mudstone geochemistry has been considered best to represent the source rock characteristics. The UCC (Upper Continental Crust) normalized major and trace elements of the Hindon flood plain sediments are very similar to the Siwalik mudstone except for Th and Cr. Furthermore, the average chondrite normalized REE pattern of the Hindon flood plain sediments is similar to the Siwalik mudstone. Textural immaturity, K/Rb ratios and the average CIA (Chemical Index of Alteration) and PIA (Plagioclase Index of Alteration) values of the Hindon flood plain sediments indicate that the sediments have not been affected by chemical weathering. Our study suggests that the active tectonics of the Himalayas and monsoon climate enhances only physical erosion of the source rocks (Siwaliks) rather than the chemical alteration. These factors help the Hindon sediments to retain their parental and tectonic signature even after recycling. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Ahmad R.,Aligarh Muslim University | Pandey R.B.,Aligarh Muslim University | Anf S.H.,Aligarh Muslim University | Nabi N.,Amar Singh College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

SDS-PAGE profiles of soluble eye lens nuclei proteins of walking catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.) revealed the existence of eight distinct polymorphs along the western region of Uttar Pradesh, India. On the basis of their molecular weights (VL) and isoelectric points (pi), the polypeptides were identified as β- and γ-crystallins. The crystallins characteristically focused between pi values of 5.2 to 8.7 and had molecular weights of 19 to34kDa. Statistical analysis of polymorphs within random catches indicated a latitudinal pattern of fish distribution. We propose that the observed distribution pattern is the consequence of limited terrestrial migration of C. batrachus. Nocturnal migration to nearby water bodies is its outstanding characteristic as an air-breathing and walking silurid, specifically during rainy season. Population substructure is genetically recognizable into three zones: upper, central and lower; out of which the latter two are most inhabited. F-value according to ANOVA was 1.095 indicating that at different locations, polymorphs existed in differing frequencies (p = 0.375). Present results thus suggest that with the exception of the flood-prone locations, selection pressures which have limited the output of this threatened catfish have not disturbed the homogeneity of population structure in the investigated region. © Asian Net Work for Scientific Information.

Dar S.A.,Aligarh Muslim University | Khan K.F.,Aligarh Muslim University | Khan S.A.,Aligarh Muslim University | Mir A.R.,University of Kashmr | And 2 more authors.
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2014

The paper presents the uranium (U) concentration and distribution pattern in the Paleoproterozoic phosphorites of Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh. The study of thin sections, SEM and XRD reveal that apatite is the essential phosphate mineral while quartz and feldspars are the dominant gangue in the phosphorites of the investigated area. The collophane is observed to be mostly oolitic in form and microspherulitic in texture. The major element geochemistry indicated that the phosphorite samples are rich in P2O5, CaO, SiO2 and Fe2O3 whereas depletion of MgO, MnO, K2O and Al2O3 was observed. The CaO/P2O5 ratio ranges from 1.13 to 1.46 which is slightly lower than that of cations and anions substituted francolite (1.621) and close to that of carbonate-fluorapatite (1.318). The trace element geochemistry indicates that the phosphorites of Lalitpur have the significant range of U concentration (1.67 to 129.67 μg/g) which is more than that of Th (0.69 to 0.09 μg/g) among the analysed trace elements in the phosphorite samples of the area. The positive correlation of U with P2O5, CaO and U/P2O5 indicates a close association of U with phosphate minerals like collophane (apatite), whereas negative correlation of U with SiO2 and Fe2O3 may be due to mutual replacement. The antipathetic relationship of U with Ni may be an indication of high oxidizing conditions, whereas sympathetic relationship of U with K2O points towards higher alkaline conditions of the basin of deposition during phosphatization. The variable concentration of U and its relationship with significant major and trace elements in most of the phosphorite samples lead one to believe that the deposition of these phosphorites might have taken place in highly alkaline medium during fairly oxidizing to weakly reducing environmental conditions of geosynclinal basin. © 2013 Saudi Society for Geosciences.

Singh S.P.,Amar Singh College | Pal M.S.,Amar Singh College
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2011

A field experiment was carried during winter season of 2005-06 and 2006-07 to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on productivity, quality, economics and nutrient uptake of mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj & Cosson] in Indo-Gangetic plains of India. The plant height, total dry matter accumulation, leaf area index and seed and stover yields were recorded significantly higher when recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) i.e.120:17.6:16.6:40, N:P:K:S kg/ha was applied along with FYM 10t/ha, 25kg ZnS04/ha and seed treatment with Azotobacter. On an average, seed yield of mustard increased by 41.2 % over alone application of RDF. Application of either FYM or Zn or seed treatment along with RDF enhanced the mustard seed yield by 12.0, 11.5 and 13.0%, respectively over RDF alone. The inorganic fertilization had adverse effect on oil as well as glucosinolate contents and highest values were recorded at 50% RDF. Additional application of either of FYM or Zn further increased the oil and glucosinolate contents. Azotobacter seed treatment reduced the glucosinolate but improved the oil content. The highest values of N, P, K, S and Zn content and its uptake were recorded with combined application of RDF with FYM, Zn and Azotobacter.

Khan A.R.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Saleem M.,Amar Singh College | Banday S.A.,NIT SrinagarJandK
Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovative Applications of Computational Intelligence on Power, Energy and Controls with Their Impact on Humanity, CIPECH 2014 | Year: 2014

With the improvement and development of the high performance computing systems, the need arises to use the resources available at hand efficiently. Rendering is one kind of application which is suitable for high computing. In the modern era of computing we have got the quad processors available, but the processes and data we manipulate on these, is still based on the serial algorithms in many of the cases. As rendering needs more computing and is associated with huge data access, it can be broken into the smaller subtasks of same nature to be executed on the different processors. The parallel approach works on the principle of solving or computing the different similar sub-tasks using the different available resources of computing (processors) in a parallel fashion. Means at the end of one unit of time, we are having the result of as much number of subtasks in hand, as the number of processors available. The only thing we need to keep in mind is how to efficiently share the resources between different subtasks and how to balance the load factor as per different processors are considered. In this paper we are proposing a hierarchical scheduling policy for rendering to improve its performance as compared to the present day available methods. We will evaluate the approach with the existing approaches for rendering to show the improvement in performance. © 2014 IEEE.

A total of 60 molecules of androstane derivatives of steroids (1-60) have been undertaken to predict their pharmacological effects, specific mechanisms of action, known toxicities, drug likeness, etc., by using the statistics of multilevel neighbourhoods of atoms (MNA) descriptors for active and inactive fragments. The biological activity spectra for substances have been correlated on SAR base (Structure-activity relationships data and knowledge base) which provides the different Pa (probability of activity) and Pi (probability of inactivity). The Lipinski's rule predicts that all the androstane derivatives have stronger preponderance for "cancer-like- drug" molecules and some of their related analogous have been entered in the ANCI (American National Cancer Institute) database. Some selected bond distances and bond angles of interest have been taken into account and deviation of bond distances/bond angles, vis-a-vis the substitutional group and X-H·A intra/intermolecular hydrogen bonds have been discussed in detail. X-H·A intra/intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the identified molecules have been described with the standard distance and angle cut-off criteria. D-θ and d-θ scatter plots for X-H·A intra-and intermolecular interactions are presented for better understanding of packing interactions existing among these derivatives. Comparison of contacts from H(C) to O and H(O) to O, vis-a-vis their crystal structure reveals that contacts from H(O) to O predominate over H(C) to O. Solvent-solute/solute-solvent interactions have also been investigated to understand more complicated processes that occur for biomolecules in aqueous solutions. Most of the molecules show high value of drug-likeness whereas molecule-3 (82.5%), 36 (87.2%), 41 (83.7%), 43 (86.5%) and 50 (85.9%) exhibit low value of drug-likeness, instead of observed range of 90.3-99.2%. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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