Carvalho L.,Institute Medicina Molecular |
Heisenberg C.-P.,AM Technology
Trends in Cell Biology | Year: 2010
The yolk syncytial layer (YSL) plays crucial roles in early zebrafish development. The YSL is a transient extra-embryonic syncytial tissue that forms during early cleavage stages and persists until larval stages. During gastrulation, the YSL undergoes highly dynamic movements, which are tightly coordinated with the movements of the overlying germ layer progenitor cells, and has critical functions in cell fate specification and morphogenesis of the early germ layers. Movement coordination between the YSL and blastoderm cells is dependent on contact between these tissues, and is probably required for the patterning and morphogenetic function of the YSL. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in elucidating the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the YSL morphogenesis and movement coordination between the YSL and blastoderm during early development. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Barton N.H.,AM Technology
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010
If distinct biological species are to coexist in sympatry, they must be reproductively isolated and must exploit different limiting resources. A two-niche Levene model is analysed, in which habitat preference and survival depend on underlying additive traits. The population genetics of preference and viability are equivalent. However, there is a linear trade-off between the chances of settling in either niche, whereas viabilities may be constrained arbitrarily. With a convex trade-off, a sexual population evolves a single generalist genotype, whereas with a concave trade-off, disruptive selection favours maximal variance. A pure habitat preference evolves to global linkage equilibrium if mating occurs in a single pool, but remarkably, evolves to pairwise linkage equilibrium within niches if mating is within those niches-independent of the genetics. With a concave trade-off, the population shifts sharply between a unimodal distribution with high gene flow and a bimodal distribution with strong isolation, as the underlying genetic variance increases. However, these alternative states are only simultaneously stable for a narrow parameter range. A sharp threshold is only seen if survival in the 'wrong' niche is low; otherwise, strong isolation is impossible. Gene flow from divergent demes makes speciation much easier in parapatry than in sympatry. © 2010 The Royal Society.
Campinho P.,AM Technology
Nature cell biology | Year: 2013
Epithelial spreading is a common and fundamental aspect of various developmental and disease-related processes such as epithelial closure and wound healing. A key challenge for epithelial tissues undergoing spreading is to increase their surface area without disrupting epithelial integrity. Here we show that orienting cell divisions by tension constitutes an efficient mechanism by which the enveloping cell layer (EVL) releases anisotropic tension while undergoing spreading during zebrafish epiboly. The control of EVL cell-division orientation by tension involves cell elongation and requires myosin II activity to align the mitotic spindle with the main tension axis. We also found that in the absence of tension-oriented cell divisions and in the presence of increased tissue tension, EVL cells undergo ectopic fusions, suggesting that the reduction of tension anisotropy by oriented cell divisions is required to prevent EVL cells from fusing. We conclude that cell-division orientation by tension constitutes a key mechanism for limiting tension anisotropy and thus promoting tissue spreading during EVL epiboly.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-07-2014 | Award Amount: 2.09M | Year: 2015
CloudTeams will be a cloud-based platform transforming software development for cloud services into a much easier, faster and targeted process, by engaging communities of users who will participate in the product life cycle to help software teams develop better solutions for customers problems. Main challenges addressed by CloudTeams are first, the fragmented European market that makes adaptation of innovations difficult and expenses for market research extremely high and second, the lack of tools and incentives for users to collaborate with talented software teams around Europe towards developing better solutions. CloudTeams will solve these problems, by bringing end-users into its platform, use existing data to find the proper match with a project, and facilitate the communication between the software team and the users throughout the whole development process. CloudTeams will use endpoints to existing services and tools that are popular in software development, by mashing them up with common practices. It will support developers with a collaborative platform where interaction with customers will feel natural and will validate the final outcome. CloudTeams is the intersection of three important fields: crowdsourcing platforms, collaborative software development tools and trusted cloud services delivery. This innovative combination of different tools and practices under a unique concept will be enhanced with a rewarding system to enable end-users to jump into the platform and support solutions they are interested in. In addition a testing and trust framework will validate the whole process based on proper analytics and qualitative feedback by the prospective customers. The final cloud-based solutions will be validated based on the CloudTeams methodology and thus trusted by the customers, and thus will find the proper market fit in a more quick and efficient way.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: ECSEL-RIA | Phase: ECSEL-01-2014 | Award Amount: 8.66M | Year: 2015
Todays driver assistance systems offer comfort and safety in sound environmental conditions. However, in harsh environment conditions when needed most systems stop working due to reduced sensor information quality. Targeting to the area of highly automated driving the improvement of perception, decision and planning under adverse conditions is one of the main challenges to be addressed. RobustSENSE is a project aiming at automated and safe mobility. Its goal is making systems able to cope with real world requirements under all environmental conditions. The RobustSENSE system introduces reliable, secure and trustable sensors and software by implementing self-diagnosis, adaptation and robustness. By managing diversity, complexity and safety it increases yield, robustness and reliability. RobustSENSE develops metrics to measures sensor system reliability on every level of assistance and automation systems as well as investigate approaches to improve the system. RobustSENSE thus aims at enhancing the robustness of all sensing methods and algorithms required for advanced driver assistance systems and automated driving. RobustSENSE moves from a platform consisting of several independent subsystems to a holistic approach. RobustSENSE introduces both, reliability measures and self monitoring across all levels of the system allowing two things: 1) Taking appropriate actions and algorithms on the respective system level to react on performance reduction caused by technical failure or changing environment conditions and 2) propagating reliability measures to a higher system level for decision making and taking appropriate actions therein. Thus, the area of operation of highly automated driving functions is permanently adapted to the present available performance of the perception and decision making system in order to guarantee a safe driving status at any time.