O'Fearraigh P.,Altnagelvin Area Hospital
Journal of the Irish Dental Association | Year: 2010
Maxillofacial and dental defects often have detrimental effects on patient health and appearance. A holistic approach of restoring lost dentition along with bone and soft tissue is now the standard treatment of these defects. Recent improvements in reconstructive techniques, especially osseointegration, microvascular free tissue transfer, and improvements in bone engineering, have yielded excellent functional and aesthetic outcomes. This article reviews the literature on these modern reconstructive and rehabilitation techniques.
McKay M.,Altnagelvin Area Hospital
Nursing children and young people | Year: 2012
This article aims to identify and critically review three pain assessment tools that have been recommended for use by the Royal College of Nursing (2009) in clinical practice for the child with severe learning disabilities. The tools are assessed and their application specifically to orthopaedic practice is discussed with a view to providing adequate pain relief for this group of children.
Lindsay J.R.,Altnagelvin Area Hospital |
Oldfield E.H.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Stratakis C.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Nieman L.K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011
Context: Selective adenomectomy via transsphenoidal surgery induces remission of Cushing's disease (CD) in most patients. Although an undetectable postoperative serum cortisol (<2 μg/dl) has been advocated as an index of remission, there is no consensus on predictors of recurrence. Objective: We hypothesized that patients with subnormal cortisol (2- 4.9 μg/dl) might achieve long-term remission and that postoperative responses to CRH might predict recurrence. Design, Setting, and Participants: We prospectively studied CD patients with initial remission after adenomectomy or hemihypophysectomy (n = 14). Long-term recurrence (n = 39) or remission (n = 293) was assigned by laboratory results, glucocorticoid dependence, or patient survey at a mean of 10.6 yr after surgery. Intervention and Main Outcome Measures: Postoperatively, morning cortisol was measured on d 3-5, and cortisol and ACTH responses to ovine CRH were assessed around d 10. Results: Follow-up duration was median 11 yr (range 1-22.8 yr). Fewer patients achieved a cortisol nadir below 2 μg/dl (87%) than below 5 μg/dl (98%), yet recurrence rates were similar (<2 μg/dl, 9.5%; <5 μg/dl, 10.4%; 2-4.9 μg/dl, 20%; not significant). CRH-stimulated cortisol (P < 0.002) and ACTH(P = 0.04) values were higher for the recurrence than the remission group. However, no basal or stimulated ACTH or serum or urine cortisol cutoff value predicted all who later recurred. Conclusions: A postoperative cortisol below 2 μg/dl predicts long-term remission after transsphenoidal surgery in CD. Remission in those with intermediate d 3-5 postoperative cortisol values (2- 4.9 μg/dl) suggests that these patients do not require immediate reoperation. However, because no single cortisol cutoff value excludes all patients with recurrence, all require long-term clinical follow-up. Copyright © 2011 by The Endocrine Society.
McCrossan B.A.,Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children |
Sands A.J.,Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children |
Kileen T.,Altnagelvin Area Hospital |
Cardwell C.R.,Queens University of Belfast |
Casey F.A.,Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children
Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition | Year: 2011
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, accuracy and user acceptability of performing remote fetal echocardiograms (FEs). Setting: A regional fetal cardiology unit and a district general hospital (DGH). Design: A prospective study over 20 months. An initial FE was performed by a radiographer in the DGH (D1) followed by a second FE transmitted to the regional centre, in real time, via a telemedicine link with live guidance by a fetal cardiologist (D2). A FE was performed later at the regional centre (D3, reference standard). Structured questionnaires were employed to evaluate the technical quality of each tele-link and the radiographers' confidence at performing FE. Results: 69 remote FEs were performed and showed 58 normal hearts and 11 with congenital heart disease (CHD). D2 was accurate in 97% of cases compared with D3 (κ score=0.89) indicating excellent agreement. All tele-links connected at first attempt with a mean study time = 13.9 min. Overall tele-link quality was rated highly (median=4/5). In 94% of tele-links, at least 11/12 components of the FE were confidently assessed. The mean composite radiographer's questionnaire score increased significantly during the study period (p<0.05). Conclusions: To date this is the largest study of its kind. CHD can be confidently diagnosed and excluded by remote FE. Radiographers report increased confidence and proficiency following involvement in real-time telemedicine. This application of telemedicine could improve access to fetal cardiology and support radiographers screening for CHD.
Wilson C.P.,University of Ulster |
Ward M.,University of Ulster |
McNulty H.,University of Ulster |
Strain J.J.,University of Ulster |
And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012
Background: We recently reported that the elevated blood pressure (BP) observed in patients with cardiovascular disease who are homozygous for the 677C→T polymorphism (TT genotype) in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) was responsive to supplementation with riboflavin - the cofactor for MTHFR. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of riboflavin on BP targeted at patients with the TT genotype 4 y after initial investigation, during which time major changes in the clinical guidelines for antihypertensive therapy were introduced. Design: A total of 83 patients (representing all 3 genotypes) who participated in a placebo-controlled riboflavin intervention for 16 wk in 2004 agreed to take part. Nested within this follow-up, those with the TT genotype (n = 31) proceeded to intervention with riboflavin (1.6 mg/d for 16 wk) or placebo, conducted in a crossover style whereby the 2004 treatment groups were reversed. Results: At follow-up in 2008, as in 2004, patients with the TT genotype had higher systolic BP (P < 0.01), with a nonsignificant trend noted for higher diastolic BP (P = 0.051). Despite the marked changes in antihypertensive therapy that had occurred, BP remained unchanged in patients with the TT genotype at the time of followup. Riboflavin supplementation (administered in 2004 and 2008) produced an overall decrease in systolic (-9.2 ± 12.8 mm Hg; P = 0.001) and diastolic (-6.0 ± 9.9 mm Hg; P = 0.003) BP. Conclusions: Optimizing riboflavin status offers a low-cost targeted strategy for managing elevated BP in this genetically at-risk group. These findings, if confirmed in the general population, could have important implications for the prevention of hypertension. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.